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PANJRUD

Panjrud dar dunyoi forsizabonho yake az maruftarin dehahost, zero on zodgohi padari sheri forsii tojiki Odamushshuaro Ustod Rudaki ast va tabiist, ki mo – panjrudiho az in khele iftikhor mekunem. Az on sabab ki hikoyati man be- vosita ba in deha va sokinonash niz rabt khohad dosht, mekhoham dar borai in gushai muqaddasi Vatan kame malumot bidiham.

PanchrudPanjrud, voqe dar darai Kishtud, yake az dehahoi shuroi dehoti Rudaki buda, dar zamoni bachchagii man taqriban 300 buna va ziyoda az 2000 sokin dosht. Deha dar du sohili rudi kuhii Urech, dar balandii 1500 metr az sathi bahr, shast kilometr janubtar az markazi nohiya – shahri Panjekat joygir shudaast. Dar markazi deha dar kanori rosti rud, yagona hamvorii kalone hast, ki dar on maqbarai Ustod Rudaki, kitobkhonavu choykhona va maktabu furushgohi deha joygir shudaand.

Maqbarai Ustod, ki soli 1958 dar ostonai jashni 1100-so- lagii shoir bino shudaast, juzi majmuai buzurge buda, on osorkhona, kitobkhona, choykhona va bogi sabzu khurram dorad. Dar- vozai asosii majmua khele zebo bino shuda, dar peshtoqash ba du khat – kirilli va forsi «Abuabdulloh Rudakii Samarqandi» navishta shuda bud. Bad az bozsozihoi solhoi okhir didam, ki nisbai «Samarqandi»-ro az nomi Ustod dar peshtoqi darvoza hazf kardaand. SHoyad in natijai siyosathoi ibnulvaqti imruza boshad. Vale nohiyahoi Panjekatu Ayni va Mascho tari- khan hamesha az nohiyahoi Samarqand budaand, ki dar natijai «tabartaqsim»-i SHuravi, onho tobei viloyati Leninobod (holo Sugd)-i Tojikiston shudaandu Samarqand ba Uzbakiston rasidaast.

Honahoi sokinoni deha dar yonahoi du tarafi daryo, ki ba- tadrij bolo meravad, to zeri kuhdoman joygir shudaand. Pas az khonahoi okhirin bevosita tali domanakuh sar shuda, bolo meravad va ba kuhho mepayvandad. In domanakuhhoi kuhpayvand az se taraf deharo misli devor ihota kardaand. YAgona samti be- devori deha samti garbi buda, rohi moshingardi deha niz az on sust, ki deharo ba markazi nohiya va dunyo mepayvandad. Deharo az samti shimolu sharqi kuhi Oftobruya, az samti sharq kuhi Kovonavu SHerzod va az samti janub kuhi Soya ihota kardaand.

Kalonsoloni deha hikoyat mekardand, ki dar guzashta guzar- hoi Soyi Nova, Qalai Kuhna va Uffor az qismathoi maskunii deha budaand. On zamonho, az sababi on ki tamini gizo sakht budaast va mardumi deha az har vajabi zamini koram istifoda mekardaand, dar mavzehoi Sari Pulaku Piruzu Rohi Bolo va Dahani Nochu Suchotu Rohi Tag khonai istiqomati namesokhtaand, zero in zaminho baroi kisht budaand. Honahoyashonro dar yonavu teppaho, ki kamtar baroi kishovarzi ba kor meomad, mesokhta- and. Badtar, vaqte kolkhoz dar dashthoi Margedar zamin kushod va ba mardum niz az on jo zamin dodand, masalai kishti ziroat halli khudro yoft va dar kishtzorhoi peshina niz khona sokhtaand. Dar holi hozir tamomi in guzarhoi deha maskuni gashtaand. Zaminhoi deha az tariqi panj juy, ki setoyash az bolotari deha va dutoi digar az vasati deha, az rudkhonai Urech ob megirand, obyori meshavad.

On zamon Panjrud yake az dehahoi kolkhozi Rudaki bud. Kol- khoz istilohi rusi buda, dar zaboni forsii tojiki niz isti- foda meshud, ki manoyash khojagidorii umumi yo jamiyati ast. Inchunin hamsoyadehahoi Artuch, Madovra, YAkakhona, Kuloli, Zeri Hisor, Neknot, SHashqat va Koshona niz juzhoi in kolkhoz va aksari sokinoni in dehaho azoi in khojagi budand. Kolkhozi Rudaki muassisai kishovarzie bud, ki asosan ba tamokukori, bogdori va chorvodori mashgul bud. Gayr az in, kolkhoz zaminhoi lalmi dosht, ki dar onho javu gandum mekoridand. Mardumi deha sole hasht-nuh moh dar mazraahoi kolkhozi kor mekardand va tanho se-chor mohi zimiston nisbatan ozod meshudand. Muzde, ki kolkhoz ba kormandoni khud medod, ziyod naboshad ham, baroi ruzguzaronii soda kifoyat mekard.

Sokinoni Panjrud dar nazdi khonahoyashon zamin doshtand, ki qisman az boghoi sebu nok iborat buda, dar qismi digari in zaminho anvoi ziroati gizoi kisht mekardand, ki ehtiyo- jotashonro tamin menamud. Dar mohhoi zimiston, ki kori kolkhoz kam meshud, mevai boghoi khudro ba bozorhoi Marvu CHorjuy va Bukhorovu Toshkand va gohe Ishqobodu Olmooto bur- da mefurukhtand va daromad ba dast meovardand. Hamin tavr, in zaminhoi nazdihavligi, az yak su, khonavodahoi mardumro bo sabzavot tamin namoyad, az sui digar, furushi mevai on daromade medod, ki mardum kamihoi digari ruzgorashonro az on hisob bud mekardand. Gayr az in, hamai sokinon chor- voi khonagi doshtand, ki khuroki on az zaminhoi nazdihavligi bud va on dar navbati khud, khojagihoro bo gushtu shir tamin mekard. Ba nazari man, in zaminhoi nazdihavligi beshtar az muzdi mehnati kolkhozi ba mardum daromad medodand va bori ruzgorashonro mekashidand.

Mardumi deha mehnatdust budand. In mehnatdusti tavam bo sunnathoi ustuvori boboi va siyosati hukumati davr bois shuda bud, ki mardum beshtar dar deha poyband shuda, kamtar az pai omuzish va ilmu fan meraftand. Ilova bar in, siyosati «sab- ti nom dar joi istiqomat»-i davlati vaqt ijozai muhojirat namedod, dar natija mardum ba istiloh dar yak mamnugohe mezistand. Tibqi siyosati sabti nom dar joi istiqomat, yo ba istilohi on zamon roij – «propiska», dar Ittihodi shuravi maqomot muhojirati mardumro shadidan nazorat mekardand va tagyiri joi istiqomati shahrvandon faqat bo ijozati maqomot imkonpazir bud. Hatmkardagoni maktabi deha ba maktabhoi oli dokhil shuda, onro khatm kunand ham, aksaran, bo rohkhat ba zodgoh firistoda meshudand. Baroi onho maskun shudan dar shahrho yo idoma dodan ba tahsil kam muyassar meshud.

Umuman, jomeai Panjrudro metavonem jomeai sunnati nom barem, ki dar on tanzimi hayot az ruyi rasmu rusum va urfu odat amali meshavad. Odamon dar in jomea beshtar dar halqai qavmu avlod zindagi mekunand, ki on yake az omilhoi poyband mondan ba in rasmu rusum meboshad.

Dar chunin jomeae inson poybandi yak qator urfu odatho ast, onhoro muqaddas meshumorad va hech goh ba shikastani onho dast namezanad. Zimnan, rasmu rusum dar jomea dar zamonhoi gunogun zeri tasiri sharoiti zist paydo meshavand. Masalan, serfarzandi dar Panjrud zamone rasm shudaast, ki margumi- ri kudakon ba sababi sharoiti badi behdosht ziyod budaast. Hatto, dar bayni mardum maqole hast, ki meguyad: «YAk farzand farzand nest». YO, padidai mahdud zistani sokinoni deha va az muhojiratu omezish bo mardumi berun khuddori kardani onho, mahsuli zamoni turktozi va khatarzo budani dunyoi berun budaast.

Dar chunin jomeai sunnatgaro aqli salim hukmfarmoi mekunad va ba farq az tafakkuri mantiqi, padidahoro tahlil namekunad, ba botini onho namenigarad va majmui raftoru kirdori roijro be tahlilu barrasi qabul namuda, ijroi onro az hamagon talab mekunad.

Hamin tavr, sokinoni Panjrud niz dar zamoni kudakii man ba tagyiri sharoit nigoh nakarda, ba urfu rasmi boboi arj guzoshta, dar chorchubi onho zindagi mekardand.

Zamoni bachchagii man sokinoni deha hama ba hamdigar qarin budand, mehru muhabbat doshtand va doim az holi ham khabar- dor, guyo dar yak oilai buzurge mezistand. Aslan, sokinoni deha taqriban hama bo hamdigar robitai kheshu payvandi dorand. Fikr mekunam agar durust tahqiq shavad, misli nasli inson, ki az yak momovu (Havvo) bobo (Odam) hastand, jaddi hamai sokino- ni Panjrud ham rafta, ba sulolai Ustod Rudaki mepayvandad.

Honai mo dar guzari Qalai Kuhna dar qismati garbii deha joygir shudaast. Pas az on faqat hotai ammaam ast, ki az boloi on jui Tarnovaho meguzarad. Bad az on juy, tali CHing- reza ogoz shuda, bolo meravad va ba Kuhi Soya mepayvandad. Bahoron, bad az Navruz, vaqte ba mo ijozat medodand, ki shabho dar berun, dar rui kat bikhobem, sadoi forami obi juybore, ki az jui Tarnovaho ba khonaamon mefuromad, moro alla meguftu subhho chah-chahi bulbulone, ki har bahor dar shokhhoi darakhtoni safedor mavo megiriftand, az khob bedor mekard. Hanuz ham dilam baroi on zamonu makon gum mezanad.

Dar dehai mo Navruzro purshukuh jashn megiriftand. Har sol mo – bachchaho ruzi avvali in idro besabrona intizor meshu- dem. Dar boloi khonai mo dar shafati tali CHingreza hamvorie hast, ki onro Hirmanjoy menomand. YAk nafar az sokinon ruzi avvali Navruz ba in balandi baromada, doyra mezad va mar- dumro az omadani Navruz khabar mekard. Bad az on dar davo- mi yak hafta har ruz dukhtaron bo sarulibosi navi navruzi ba Hirmanjoy meomadand va doyrazanivu surudkhoni mekardand. Bachchaho guruh-guruh muvofiqi sinnu sol jam shuda, chilikbozi mekardand. Ba mo dar Navruz hatman libosi nav mekharidand va yak hafta, ki hamai javononi deha dar in joy bazmu bozihoi navruzi mekardand, ahli deha baroi bachchaho dastarkhon mefi- ristodand. Jashni Navruz to yak hafta bo jushu khurushi khos idoma meyoft, vale asari farahe, ki on ba dilho meovard, duru daroz boqi memond.

Dar yake az ruzhoi Navruz dar masjidi deha «Jufti gov» nom marakae barguzor meshud, ki dar on muysafedoni deha ba dehqonon baroi kishti nav fotiha medodand va mavsimi kishtukori onsola ogoz meshud. Dar kori kishovarzi deha ba du guruh taqsim bud va in guruhhoro sarkoron rohbari mekardand. Hamin sarkoronu dehqonon dar in ruz dar masjid jam shuda, tarzi koru bori kishovarzii imsolaro mashvarat mekardand. Toza kardani juyho, shudgor kardani zaminho, ba kadom ziro- at ikhtisos dodani in yo on qita, taqsimi kor bayni azo va gayra dar hamin maraka barrasi va hal karda meshud. Bad az in hama yake az piron khesta, porae az Quronro qiroat karda, baroi Boboi Dehqon az khudovand obu havoi musoid va hosili farovon tamanno mekard va hama dast ba ruy kashida, az pasi kor meshudand.

Honatakoni yake az rasmhoi navruzi bud. Modaroni deh, ki sohibkhona budand, bo yorii dukhtaron, pesh az idi Navruz tamomi bisoti khonaro berun mebarovardand, farshu palos va liboshoro az changu gard metakondand, degu kosaro toza meshustand va guyo gamu kulfati soli raftaro az khona berun mekardand va bo ruhi toza, zindagi dar soli navro shuru mekardand.

Bachchagii man dar ana hamin «Dehai tilloi» guzashtaast.

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