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PAYDOISH VA MOHIYATI DAVLAT

Paydoish, mohiyat, nishonaho va navhoi tarikhii davlat

Zamone bud, ki dar olam davlat vujud nadosht  Vay dar marhilai muayyani taraqqiyoti jamiyat ba vujud omad. To zamoni paydo shudani davlat sokhti jamiyati ibtidoi vujud dosht. Dar chunin jamiyat davlat, huquq, sinfho va hatto molikiyati khususi nabud. Odamon yakjoya mehnat karda, vositahoi ruzguzaroniro ba dast meovardand. Hama odamon ozod va barobar budand. Onho ozodi va manfiathoi yakdigarro yakjoya hifz mekardand. Munosibathoi bayni odamon dar asosi rasmu odat va anana ba tartib darovarda meshudand. Masalahoi muhimi hayoti dar majlisi umumii azoi ba balogat rasidai avlod hal karda meshudand. Dohiyon va sardoroni harbi dar fosilai jamomadho masalahoi jorii hayoti jamiyatro idora menamudand. Onho nisbat ba digaron hej guna bartarii moddi nadoshtand. Harvaqte, ki zarurat pesh meomad, onhoro intikhob yo ivaz mekardand. Hej guna guruhi makhsusi odamone, ki digaronro rasman idora namoyand, vujud nadosht.

Asosi sokhti tashkilivu ijtimoii hayoti azoi jamiyatro jamoai oilavi tashkil medod, ki dar poyai munosibathoi avlodi bunyod yofta bud. YAkchand avlod muttahid shuda, jamoai oilaviro tashkil medodand.

Bo maqsadi yurishhoi harbi, hujum ba qabilahoi digar va gayraho yakchand jamoai oilavi muttahid meshudand, ki asosi onro niz nishonai avlodi tashkil medod. Ba hamin sabab jamiyati on zamonhoro jamiyati avlodi menomidand.

SHaklhoi asosii faoliyati khojagii odamonro shikor, mohidori va jam namudani nabotot tashkil medodand. CHunin navi hayoti khojagiro khojagii azkhudkunanda menomand.

davlat-bayraq

Guzarish az khojagii azkhudkunanda ba iqtisodiyoti istehsolkunanda beshtar ba omilhoi khislati ekologidoshta asos meyobad. Tagyiroti nomusoidi muhit, nobudshavii namudhoi ziyodi nabotot va hayvonot, ki odamoni jamiyati ibtidoi istemol menamudand,ba inkishofi jamiyati ibtidoi betasir namond.

Guzarishi muntazam ba iqtisodi istehsolkunanda hayoti odamoni jamiyati ibtidoiro digargun sokht.

Funksiyahoi navi idorakuni paydo shuda, barqarorshavii tipi navi faoliyati mehnati ba miyon omad.

Inkishofi zamindori zarurati tanzim va bahisobgirii sahmi har yak uzvi jamiyati ibtidoiro ba miyon ovarda, ishtiroki onhoro dar tashkili fondhoi jamiyati, taqsimoti mahsuloti istehsolshuda va

tashkili fondhoi gunogun muayyan namud. Peshvo dar jamiyat taqsimkunandai asosii mahsuloti istehsolshuda, nazoratkunanda va tanzimkunandai jarayoni istehsolot megardad va bo guzashti vaqt az omma judo gardida, vobasta ba mavqei ishgolkardaash imkoniyat paydo mekunad, ki arzishi izofai mahsulotro az khud namuda, ba dorandai molikiyat tabdil yobad. Bo murakkabshavii istehsolot shakhsone paydo meshavand, ki funksiyai mushovir, mamur, amaldor va gayraro ijro menamudand.

Hamin tavr, taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunanda va taqsimoti jamiyatii mehnat (kishovarzi, chorvodori, tijorat) boisi ba sinfho judo shudani jamiyat gardid. Dar jamiyat tadrijan guruhhoi sarvatmand va kambizoat ba vujud omadand. Raftarafta ziddiyati bayni onho purzur gardid va onhoe, ki az jihati iqtisodi purquvvat budand, ba dastgohi makhsusi majburkuni ehtiyoj paydo namudand. Hamin tariq, tanazzuli jamiyati ibtidoi ogoz gardid. Ba vujud omadani sinfho, purzurshavii istismor va paydoishi molikiyati khususi boisi tashkili dastgohi majburkuni gardid. Ba sifati chunin dastgohi majburkuni faqat davlat amal karda metavonist.

Vay dar natijai taraqqiyoti dokhilii jamiyati ibtidoi, paydoish va ziddiyati sinfho va nobarobarii molumulkii azoyoni jamiyat ba miyon omad. Vale vayronshavii jamiyati ibtidoi dar rui zamin va

tarzi paydoishi davlatho bo shaklhoi gunogun jarayon megirift. Davlatho vobasta ba sharoiti muayyani tarikhi, paydoishi molikiyati khususi, inchunin tarzu usulhoi muborizai sinfho bo shaklhoi gunogun paydo meshudand.

Nakhustin davlatho avval dar SHarq paydo shudaand. Quvvai asosii istehsolkunanda va tabaqai bonufuzi in davlatho ziroatparvaron budaand. Davlathoi nakhustin dar shakli shahr – davlatho paydo shudaand. Onho be yagon tarkishi ijtimoi paydo shuda, badtar ba davlathoi doroi tarzi istehsoli osiyoi tabdil yoftaand. Nakhustin davlatho dar hazorsolai IV-VII to solshumorii milodi dar Hitoyi qadim, Baynannahrain, Mesoamerika va Perui Kuhi dar yak vaqt va novobasta az hamdigar paydo shudaand. Dar onho tabaqahoi navi ijtimoi, ba monandi ziroatparvaron, hunarmandon, ruhoniyon va idorakunandagon istiqomat mekardand. Dar on davlatho bayni odamon taqsimoti molu mulk va mehnat aniq shuda, mazmuni hududi paydo karda bud. SHahr – davlathobo mururi zamon ba markazhoi mamuri, khojagi va dini tabdil yofta, vazifahoi idorakunii davlatro ijro mekardand.

Paydoishi davlat dar tarikhi bashar bo shaklhoi digar niz surat giriftaast. F.Engels dar asari khud «Paydoishi oila, molikiyati khususi va davlat» se shakli asosii paydoishi davlatro nishon dodaast: afinagi, rimi va olmoni.

Davlati gulomdorii Afina shakli klassiki paydoishi davlat meboshad. Zero on dar natijai inkishofi sokhti avlodi, ki asosi onro ziddiyathoi sinfi tashkil medodand, be dakholat va zurovarii

dokhilivu beruni paydo shudaast.

Davlati Rim niz dar asosi vayronshavii sokhti avlodi, bavujudoii molikiyati khususi va ba sinfhoi ba ham zid judo shudani jamiyat ba vujud omadaast.

Vale khususiyati farqkunandai paydoishi davlati qadimi Rim az on iborat ast, ki on natijai muborizai bayni plebeyho va patrisiyho meboshad. Plebeyho shakhsoni ozod buda, az avlodi rimiho nabudand. Onho az mahalhoi ba zeri itoat darovardashuda va sohibi zamin buda, andoz mesuporidand va khizmati harbiro ba jo meovardand. Patrisiyho asilzodagon va hokimoni avlodii rimiho budand. Plebeyho baroi roh yoftan ba mansab va istifoda burdan az zaminhoi

davlati ba muqobili patrisiyho muborizaro sar kardand. In muboriza boisi surat giriftani jarayoni tashkilshavii davlati gulomdorii Rim gardid.

Davlati olmoni shakli digari paydoishi davlat meboshad. Vay dar asri V pesh az milod dar natijai zabt shudani hududi imperiyai Rim az tarafi qabilahoi olmoni ba vujud omadaast. Qabilahoi olmoni,

ki dar sokhti jamiyati avlodi zindagi mekardand, badi zabt namudani hududi imperiyai Rim onro idora karda natavonistand. Zero baroi idora kardan dastgohi majburkuni lozim bud. Ba hamin sabab maqomoti sokhti avlodii olmoni bazudi ba maqomoti davlati tabdil yoftand.

Mohiyati davlat mazmun, tainot va mavjudiyati davlatro dar bar megirad va masalae meboshad, ki ba ki taalluq doshtani hokimiyati davlatiro muayyan mekunad. Harchand davlat dar davrahoi muayyani

tarikhi manfiathoi tabaqa yo sinfi hokimro ifoda namuda, hukmronii aqalliyatro az boloi aksariyat tamin kardaast, vale dar sharoiti hozira mohiyati khudro tagyir dodaast. Davlat tadrijan ba mekhanizmi samaranoki bartaraf namudani mukholifathoi jamiyati na bo rohi zuri va pakhsh kardani onho, balki noil shudan ba rohi sozish tabdil meyobad.

Hudi mavjudiyati davlat dar davrai hozira chandon ba sinfho va muborizai sinfi aloqamand nabuda, beshtar ba talabotu manfiathoi umumiijtimoi vobasta meboshad.

 

In masala hamkorii oqilona va mamulan osoishtai quvvahoi gunogun va ba ham mukholifro dar nazar dorad. Lekin chunin tarzi halli masala manoi onro nadorad, ki davlathoi hozira mohiyati

sinfii khudro purra gum karda boshand. Dar sharoiti nav mohiyati sinfii davlat ahamiyati duyumdaraja paydo karda, mohiyati umumiijtimoii on ba joi avval baromadaast. Aknun davlatho faoliyati khudro baroi tamin kardani sozishi umumiijtimoi va

idorai korhoi jamiyat ravona mesozand. Binobar in, hangomi tahlili mohiyati davlat hardu omil yo hardu pahlui masalaro boyad ba nazar girift. Inkor kardani yake az in du omil mohiyati davlatro nopurra va yaktarafa baho dodan ast.

Davlat doroi nishonahoi zerin meboshad:

1.Hokimiyati ommavi (davlati). Hokimiyatro baroi on ommavi menomand, ki vay bo jamiyat yak (mutobiq) nabuda, balki az nomi on, yane az nomi tamomi khalq faoliyat mekunad. Hokimiyati ommavi

dar simoi maqomot va muassisahoi davlati, inchunin shakhsoni mansabdori davlati tajassum yofta, ba hokimiyati davlati tabdil meyobad va in yake az khususiyathoi farqkunandai chunin navi hokimiyat

meboshad. Hokimiyati davlati ba vositai maqomot va shakhsoni mansabdor idorakunii jamiyatro ba roh monda, ba hamin tartib az jamiyat judo meshavad va az on bolo meistad. Davlat yakjoya bo maqomot va muassisahoi davlati dastgohi makhsusi majburkuniro

tashkil medihad. Maqomoti hokimiyat va idorakuni, sudho, prokurorho, artish, milisa, maqomoti amniyat va gayraho ba sifati chunin maqomot va tashkilothoi davlati faoliyat mekunand.

 

  1. Tashkili joygirshavii aholi dar hududi muayyan va amali namudani hokimiyati ommavi dar doirai on hudud. Davlat doroi hududi muayyane meboshad, ki dar on hudud sohibikhtiyorii davlat ifoda meyobad. Aholie, ki dar in hudud zindagi mekunad, shahrvandoni on davlat ba hisob meravad. Farqi davlat az tashkilothoi gayridavlati (ittifoqhoi kasaba, hizbhoi siyosi va gayra) dar on ast, ki davlat ifodakunandai manfiati hamai aholii mamlakat buda, hokimiyati khudro nisbat ba hamai onho barobar tatbiq menamoyad. Vale tashkilothoi gayridavlati ikhtiyoran tashkil yofta, faqat yak qismi aholiro dar hayati khud muttahid mesozand.

 

3.Sohibikhtiyori nishonai seyumi davlat meboshad.

Sohibikhtiyori dar voloiyat, mustaqiliyat va mukhtoriyati hokimiyati davlati ifoda meyobad. Voloiyati hokimiyati davlati manoi ba hama umumi budani hokimiyat, bartarii on va doroi qudrati majburkuni

doshtani hokimiyati davlatiro ifoda menamoyad.

Mustaqiliyat va mukhtoriyati hokimiyati davlati chunin mani dorad, ki davlat dar dokhili mamlakat va berun az on huquqi ba tavri mutlaq va ozodona hal namudani hama guna masalahoro dorad.

 

4.Aloqamandii davlat va huquq. Davlat be huquq vujud doshta nametavonad. Huquq davlat va hokimiyati davlatiro ba rasmiyat darovarda, bo hamin roh onro qonuni (rasmi) megardonad. Davlat vazifahoi khudro ba shakli huquqi amali menamoyad. Hamzamon bo in, huquq faoliyati davlat va hokimiyati davlatiro dar doirai qonuniyat mushakhkhas namuda, tobeiyati onhoro ba nizomi huquqii mushakhkhas tamin mekunad. Dar in guna holati tobeiyati davlati ba huquq davlati demokrativu huquqbunyod tashkil meyobad.

Hamin tavr, davlat tashkiloti hokimiyati siyosii jamiyat meboshad, doroi dastgohi makhsusi majburkuni buda, salohiyati khudro dar hududi muayyan amali menamoyad. Vale chunin mafhum niz ba monandi mafhumhoi digari davlat nisbatan sharti buda, tanho nishonahoi huquqii davlatro ifoda menamoyad va mohiyati purrai in instituti murakkabro dar bar namegirad.

Dar tarikhi bisyorasrai inkishofi insoniyat davlathoi ziyode yakdigarro ivaz namudaand. Binobar in, navhoi tarikhii davlat niz gunogun meboshand.

Onhoro ba navhoi tarikhii davlathoi SHarq, gulomdori, feodali, kapitalisti va sotsialisti judo menamoyand. Davlathoi qadimai sharqi (Misr, Bobuliston, Hitoy, Hinduston va gayra) qarib 5 hazor

sol pesh dar mintaqahoi doroi zaminhoi obi paydo shudaand. Asosi iqtisodii in davlathoro molikiyati davlat ba zamin va inshooti obi tashkil medod. Dar in davlatho hamchun anana ba sinfho judoshavii

jamiyat vujud nadosht. Dar onho ananahoi mavjudbuda naqshi kalon mebozidand. Bisyor davlathoi qadimai SHarq asrhoi daroz be tagyir memondand va ba in sabab inkishof nameyoftand. Sokhtori hokimiyati

davlati dar onho shakli istibdodi doshta, tamomi hokimiyat ba yak shakhs – shoh yo amiri mutlaq ba tavri merosi qaror dosht, ki bo yorii dastgohi purquvvati byurokratii harbi idora karda meshud.

Dar davlati tipi gulomdori diktaturai gulomdoron az boloi gulomon, dar davlati tipi feodali hukmronii feodalho az boloi dehqonon va dar davlati kapitalisti hokimiyati burjuaziya az boloi

sinfi korgar tamin karda meshud. Dar barobari sarnagun shudani sokhti burjuazi va ivaz shudani on ba navi davlati sotsialisti diktaturai sinfi korgar ba vujud omad.

Davlati gulomdori aslihai gulomdoron baroi istismori tabaqai gulomon bud. On manfiati gulomdoronro muhofizat karda, hama guna muqobiliyati gulomonro pakhsh menamud, hukmronii aqqaliyatro az

boloi aksariyat tamin mekard. Gulom az hama gunna huququ ozodiho mahrum buda, hamchun hayvon kharidu furush karda meshud. CHunin holat boisi norozigii gulomon gardida, muborizai onhoro bar ziddi so-

khti mavjuda tadrijan purzur mekard. Dar natijai shurishhoi paydarhami gulomon poyahoi davlati gulomdori sust shuda, baroi guzashtan ba navi davlatdorii feodali zamina muhayyo megardid. Ohistaohista davlati gulomdori ba davlati feodali ivaz shuda, jamiyati gulomdori ba jamiyati feodali tabdil yoft.

Guzarish ba davlati feodali davrai duru darozro dar bar girifta, tanho dar asrhoi V-VI milodi avvalin davlathoi feodali ba vujud omadand. Dar in jamiyat zamindoron va dehqonon tabaqahoi asosi

ba hisob meraftand. Zamindoron tabaqai istismorkunanda va dehqonon tabaqai istismorshavanda ba hisob meraftand. Feodalho, ki sohibi zamin budand, dar ayni zamon sohibi hokimiyati siyosi ba

shumor meraftand. Davlati feodali hamchun vositai az tarafi feodalho pakhsh namudani muqobiliyati dehqonon bud. Vazifai in navi tarikhii davlatdori tamin namudani hukmronii feodalho az boloi dehqonon bud. Tezutundshavii muborizahoi sinfi dar davlathoi feodali bo shurishhoi ziyode meanjomid.

Dar in mavrid shumo az tarikh shurishhoi Stepan Razin va Yemelyan Pugachevro dar Rossiya, shurishi Vosero dar Bukhoroi SHarqi dar asri XIX va gayraho khondaed. In muborizaho boisi barham khurdani davlati feodali va ba joi on barpo gardidani davlati kapitalisti gardidaand. Davlati kapitalisti bo darajai nisbatan balandi inkishofi khud az navhoi davlati gulomdori va feodali farq mekunad. Dar chunin davlat du sinfi bo ham zid – korgar va burju-

aziya vujud dosht. Bo mururi taraqqi kardani kapitalizm ziddiyati bayni ravandi istehsoloti khislati jamiyatidoshta va shakli khususii azonikhudkunii on purzur megardad. Istismori korgaron toraft

shiddat girifta, norozigii onho az sokhti mavjuda meafzud. Dar natijai inqilob in navi davlat ba davlati sotsialisti ivaz gardid.

Inqilobi Oktyabri soli 1917 dar Rossiya baroi bunyodi davlati navi sotsialisti dar jahon zamina guzosht. Jumhurii mo, ki ba hayati davlati SHuravi dokhil meshud, dar qatori digar jumhurihoi ittifoqi baroi barpo namudani davlati sotsialisti sayu kushish menamud.

Davlati SHuravi du marhalaro tay namud. Marhalai diktaturai proletariat, ki az oktyabri soli 1917 to purra va qatiyan galaba kardani sotsializm, yane okhiri solhoi 50-um va avvali solhoi 60-umro dar bar megirad va marhalai duyum – davrai tashakkuli davlati umumikhalqi meboshad. Agar dar marhalai avvali inkishof davlati sotsialisti irodai sinfi korgarro ifoda karda boshad, pas dar marhilai duyum mohiyati on ifoda kardani irodai ommai khalq meboshad.

Dar okhiri soli 1991 Ittihodi Jumhurihoi SHuravii Sotsialisti barham khurd. Dar arsai jahon tashkiloti nav – Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil sozmon doda shud. Tasisdihandai IDM 11 jumhurii sobiq Ittihodi Jumhurihoi SHuravii Sotsialisti, az jumla: Armaniston, Belorussiya, Qazoqiston, Qirgiziston, Moldaviya, Ozarboyjon, Rossiya, Tojikiston, Turkmaniston, Uzbekiston va Ukraina budand.

Dar soli 1993 Gurjiston niz uzvi IDM gardid. Sozishnoma oid ba sozmon dodani Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil az 8 dekabri soli 1991, Protokol va Elomiyai Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil az 21dekabri soli 1991 va Oinnomai Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil az 22 yanvari soli 1993 sanadhoi tasisii IDM meboshand. Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil muvofiqi hujjathoi tasisi, Oinnoma va faoliyati amalii khud tashkiloti mintaqavii baynalmilali meboshad. Vay dar asosi shartnomai baynalmilali az tarafi davlathoi mustaqil tasis doda shudaast. IDM bo maqsadi hamkori dar sohahoi siyosi, iqtisodi, gumanitari, farhangi va gayraho barpo karda shudaast. Dar hujjathoi tasisii in tashkilot zarurati hamkoriho dar sohai tamini sulh va bekhatari, andeshidani choraho oid ba kam kardani siloh va kharojoti harbi, barham dodani silohi yadroi va digar silohhoi qatli om, noil shudan ba beyaroqgardonii umumi va purra makhsus takid shudaast.

Davlathoi azoi IDM dar nazdi khud vazifa guzosh taand, ki inkishofi hamatarafai davlathoro dar doirai fazoi yagonai iqtisodi, inchunin kooperatsiya va integratsiyai baynidavlati ba roh monand.

Bo maqsadi harchi samaranok hal kardani in vazifa kishvarhoi azoi IDM mohi sentyabri soli 1993 oid ba barpo namudani Ittihodi iqtisodi shartnoma  bastand. Baroi amali namudani maqsadhoi guzoshtashuda kishvarhoi azoi IDM ba khulosa omadand, ki faoliyati khudro dar asosi prinsiphoi barobari, ehtiromi sohibistiqloliyat, istifoda naburdani quvva yo tahdidi on, yagonagii qalamravi davlatho, hal namudani bahsho bo rohi osoishta, dakholat nakardan ba korhoi dokhili va beruni, tamini huquq va ozodihoi inson, hamkorii bayni davlatho, ijroi sofdilonai uhdadorihoi az rui hujjathoi Ittihod ba zimma giriftaashon va gayra ba roh memonand.

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