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PAYDOISHI SHIRHURHO

Hususiyatkhoi sokht va afzoishi shirkhurhoi tukhmzoy ba khazandaho nazdik eudani onhoro nishon mednkhad. SHirkhurkhoi tukhmzoy bar khilofi digar shirkhurho maqad dorand. Harorati badanashon 24- 34 daraja buda, tagyiryobanda ast. Tukhmashon ba tukhmi khazandaho monand meboshad.

SHirkhurhoi hozira bo baze khazandagoni munqarizshuda (bo namoyandagoni susmorkhoi darrandadandon) bisyor monandi dorand, zero onho ham dandonhoi pesh, ashk va kursi doshtand.

Dar shirkhurhoi avvalin inkishof yoftani pashm qyarorati badanro doimi gardond va dertar dar onho gadudhoi shiri
inkishof yofta, marhilai okhirini shirkhurho — zindazoii nasl paydo shud.

Rasmi 45. Namoyandahoi shirkhurhoi Tojikiston 1 Palangi barfi: 2. Kalpamushi obi: 3. Kurshabparak; 4. Buzi shokhparma; 5. Hsrpusht; 6. Qunduzi oby; 7. Jayra; 8. Sugur.
Rasmi 45. Namoyandahoi shirkhurhoi Tojikiston 1 Palangi barfi: 2. Kalpamushi obi: 3. Kurshabparak; 4. Buzi shokhparma; 5. Horpusht; 6. Qunduzi oby; 7. Jayra; 8. Sugur.

Sinfi shirkhurho ba yakchand qator taqsim meshavad.

  1. Qatori shirkhurhoi hasharotkhur. Namoyandakhoi in qatori shirkhurho tarikhan dar okhirhoi davrai geologii burohaksangi paydo shudaand. Dar onho magzi cap nisbatan khurd buda juyakho nadosht. Dandonho niz nagz inkishof nayofta bud.

Fuki onho ba khartumchai kharakatnok monand buda, gadudhoi buyfakhmi doshtand.

Hajmi badani shirkhurhoi qasharotkhur nisbat ba digar shirkhurho khurd ast. Namoyandagoni onho kurmush, zaminkob, khorpusht buda, dar ayni zamon ba gayr az Avstraliya va Amerikai Janubi boz dar digar kitaho pahn shuda, hayoti rumzamini, qabati zamini, obi va rundarakhti meguzaronand.

Kurmush qismi ziyodi umrashro dar zeri khok guzaronda, kirmi loykhurak va kirminai hasharotro mekhurad. Vay zaminro bo poyhoi peshash mekobad. Panjai on ba belchai khokandoz monand ast. Badanash bo muyhoi gullsho zich pushidaast, ki zarrakhoi khok ba on namedaroyad. Uzvhoi shomma va lomisaashon nagz inkishof yoftaast. CHashmhoi nomukammali onho dar zeri muyho pinhon buda, faqat ravshaniro az toriky farq mekunadu khalos. Kurmush sufrai gush nadorad.

Bahoron kurmushi modina 3-5 nasli khurdi barahnayu nobino zoida, onhoro qarib 1 mokh shir memakonad.

Kurmush gambuskhoi savri va kirmaki hasharotro khurda, foida merasonad, vale kirmi loykhurakro khurdanu reshai rastanihoro khoidan, ba ruyi alafzor khoktuda khosil kardanash zaraonokii vay ast. Pusti muinai kurmush baroi dukhtani telpak, palto, girebon khub ast, vals arzishi on khele qimat meaftad.

Horpusht muyhoi shakldigarkarda (sikh) dorad, vale dar zeri shikamash pashm hast. Poyhoyash kutoh buda, sust harakat mekunad. Horpusht az khatar lunda meshavad. Vay hayvoni shabgard buda, chashmoni khurdi bino dorad. Dar on uzvhoi somea va shomma nagz inkishof yoftaand. Huroki asosiash hasharot meboshad, ki vayro az tagi bargu alafhoi khazon yofta mekhuradu foida merasonad. Horpusht gayr az nn, kirmi loykhurak, kurboqka, mush, mor, inchunin tukhmi parrandaro mekhurad, ki in zarari vay asg. Horpusht dar zimiston ba panogohe daromada, duru daroz khob mekunad. Dar in Vaqt harorati badanash past shuda, kam nafas megirad, dilash sust kor mekunad, to bahor karakht tpuda khob meravad.

Zaminkob ba mush monand buda, sari khartumchadoru chashmi mayda dorad. Badanash to 10 sm darozi doshta, rangash khokistari ast. Zaminkob az mintaqai tundra to mintaqai biyobon pahn shuda, hasharotro mekhurad. Vay poyhoi kutokhdoshta, choloku serharakatu purkhur meboshad va dar yak shabonaruz 2,5-4 barobar az vazni khud ziyod khurok mekhurad.

  1. Dar qatori shirkhurhon dastbol kurshabparak yagona shirkhurest, ki qobiliyati parvoz kardan dorad. Kurshabparak dar angushti darozi poyhoi pesh pardai muloimi yozandai pusty dorad, ki on ba darozii tana to ba poyhoi aqibu dum merasad. Kurshabparak dar vaqti parvoz bol mezanad. Dar in kholat angushtonash ba du taraf pahn meshavand, pardai belshakl meyozad. Mushakhoi qafasi sinaash nagz inkishof yofta, ustukhonash zinshakl meboshad. Ustukhonbandash sabuk ast. Gushi daroz dorad. Kurshabparak shirkhuri darrandai shabgard buda, khurokash hasharot ast. Hasharotro dar havo justuju karda, bo dahonash cholokona medoral. Qobiliyati dar toriki roh yoftani kurshabparak az qadim diqqati olimonro jalb kardaast. Ruzona kurshabparakho bo angushthoi poyhoi aqib ba yagon joyi panoh (dar tahkhona kholigii bompush yo kovokii darakht) andarmon shuda, sarozer ovezon meistand. Vay shabona ba shikor baromada, gambusk, shaparak va pashshakhoro doshta, bo dandonhoi khurdi tezash khoida mekhurad.

Dar kurshabparak quvvai bosira sust va quvvai somea nagz inkishof yoftaast. Agar chashmi onro bo plastilin s leykoplastir basta dar fazoi khona yakchand tor yo rishta kashem va ba har joyash zangulacha ovezon karda, kurshabparakro cap dihem az bayni khamai on torho bekhato guzashta ba joe dakka namekhurad. YAne, kurshabparak ovozhoi malum va khatto ultrasadohoro ba osoni pay mebarad va az lappishi tor zangulacha larzida sadoe mebarorad, ki mo nameshunavem, ovozro peshaki his mekunad va ravishi harakatro tagyir doda, bo rohi bemonea guzashta meravad.

Bad az sarshavii khunuki kurshabparak ba khobi zimistoni meravad yo ba mamlakathoi garm parvoz mekunad. Avvali tobiston kurshabparaki modina 1-2 nasl guzoshta, ruzhoi avval bachaashro dar boloi khud bardoshta megardad.

Gayr az kurshabparaki darozgush dar beshahoi tropikii Amerika dastboli khunmak zindagi mekunad, ki shabona bo dandonhoi tezi khud yak parcha pusti yagon hayvonro kanda, khuni jorishudaro memakad.

Dar beshahoi tropikii Osiyo, Afrika. Avstraliya kurshabparaki kalone (saghoi boldor) zindagi karda, mevai rastanihoro mekhurand. In hayvon nisbat ba digar boldastho kalon buda, kushodii bolhoyash to ba 1,5 m merasad. Ruzona dar shokhi darakhgoni baland khob karda, shabona ba boghoi meva hujum mekunad va ba khojagii akholi zarar merasonad. To hol 1050 namudi dastbolho malum ast.

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