Home / Biologiya / PAYDOISHI HAYOT BA TASAVVUROTI FAYLASUFONI DUNYOI QADIM VA ASRHOI MIYONA

PAYDOISHI HAYOT BA TASAVVUROTI FAYLASUFONI DUNYOI QADIM VA ASRHOI MIYONA

Saviyai donish dar dunyoi qadim chandon baland nabud, aksar malumotho khususiyati afsonavi doshtand, makhsusan, dar bobati afzoish. Masalan, faylasufi yunoni Empedokl (asri V to melod) aqida dosht, ki darakhtho qobiliyati tukhmguzori dorand.

Nafahmidani usuli afzoishi bisyor rastaniyu hayvonot ehtimol sababi on shuda bud, ki on odamon bovar doshtand, az boqimondai organizmhoi favtida, yo az moddahoi gayriorganiki organizmi zinda ba vujud meoyad. Masalan, ba guftai Arastu shabushk az gusht, gandanafa- sakho az shirai badani hayvon, kirmi loykhurak az loyqai zeri havzho paydo meshavand.

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Dar asrhoi miyona ham dar masalai paydoishi hayot chunin aqidahoi nodurust joy doshtand. Aqidahoe niz budand, ki jihati paydoishi hayot khususiyati musbat doshtand, vale az sababi dar nazdi kaliso obrui ziyod doshtani Arastu goyai be hej asos paydo shudani hayot dar aqlu zehni mardum muddati tuloni boqi mond. Hatto, kimyogarhoi asrhoi miyona ba on safarbar shuda budand, ki rohu vasoiti bo rohi suni ba moddai zinda tabdil dodani moddai gayrizindaro yoband.

Masalan, rohi ba vujud ovardani mushho az gandum bo yorii «fermenti» az kurtahoi iflos hosilshuda; ehyoi inson az mahsuli jism – peshob, khun va gayra.

Kashfi mikroskop donishhoi odamonro oidi murakkabii sokhti organizmho, az jumla, hasharot (to kashfi mikroskop onro organizmi sodda mehisobidand) ziyod kard. Az jonibi digar, farziyai az materiyai gayrizinda paydo shudani organizmho zeri shubha mond.

Tajribai nakhustin dar in bobat ba olimi italiyavi (miyonai asri HVII) F. Redi mansub ast. U gushtro bo dokai havoguzar pushonida, pas az chand vaqt ba khulosa omad, ki dar gushti vayronshuda kirminai pashsha paydo nashud, zero pashsha

imkoniyati dar gusht tukhm guzoshtan nadosht. Hamin tavr, u isbot kard, ki «hamai zinda az zinda» paydo meshavad.

Dar bobati muayyan kardani rohhoi paydoishi organizmhoi zinda aqidai olimi anglis V. Garvey niz jolib ast. U dar asosi tajriba qonuni «hamai zinda az tukhm»-ro peshnihod kard. Bo vujudi in, Garvey niz ba tasavvuroti zamoni khud

takya karda, ba farziyai khud az khud paydo shudani baze hayvonot, az jumla, hasharot, bovar dosht.  Tavassuti mikroskop muayyan gasht, ki dar tabiat mavjudoti zindai darajai tashakkuli onho nisbat ba hasharot va kirmho soddatar vujud dorand. Ba in, hamchunin, mikroorganizmhoro, ki dar mahlulhoi moddahoi organiki sukunat dorand, ilova kardan mumkin ast.

Dar borai paydoishi hayot korhoi olimi ruhonii irlandi D.Nidgem (1748) niz jolibi diqqat meboshand. U dar zarfe obi khurokro andokhta dahoni onro rust kard va rui otashi past guzosht. Ba aqidai u, garmi boyad hamai on mikroorganizmhoero, ki az berun ba khurok dokhil meshudand, nobud mekard. Vale badi chand ruz dar zarf mikroorganizmhoi ziyod paydo shudand. In holat baroi olim daleli radnasha-

vandae bud bahri on, ki organizmhoi zinda az materiyai gayrizinda paydo shudaand. Goyahoi D.Nidgem dar bayni olimoni zamoni khud tarafdoroni ziyod paydo karda, muddati muayyan asosi nazariyai khud az khud paydo shudani hayot gasht.

Bisyor olimon korhoi ruhonii irlandiro takmil dodand, ammo natijahoi gunogun ba dast meomadand.

Tadqiqoti mikrobiologi fransavi L.Paster, ki solhoi 70-umi asri HIH guzaronida bud, ba goyai khud az khud paydo shudani organizmhoi zinda zarbai qati zad. Paster bo sharofati tajribai daqiq khulosai khele bovaribakhsh barovard. Korhoi u nafaqat durustii aqidai khud, balki khatohoi raqibonashro niz sobit kard.

Paster dar zarfi gardanaash S-shakl mahluli gizoi girift. Dar natijai jushonidan havoe, ki az zarf qafo megasht, khorij karda meshud. Dar in vaqt mikroorganizmho az havo dar gardani zarf takshon meshudand va gizo muddati daroz betagyir (sterili) memond. Badi buridani gardanai zarf, pas az chand ruz, dar tarkibi gizo bakteriyaho paydo meshudand.

CHunin holat dar asnoi kham kardani zarf va «shustan»-i mikroorganizmhoi tahshinshuda niz ba nazar merasid.

Korhoi Paster dar tarikhi omuzishi paydoishi hayot ahamiyati bagoyat kalon doshtand. Masalai khud az khud paydo shudani hayot dar on shakle, ki qabul shuda bud, dastgiri nayoft, fikri «hama zinda az zinda» asosi ilmi paydo kard.

Boyad guft, ki tadqiqothoi L.Paster masalai paydoishi hayotro komilan hal nakardand. U in masalaro faqat dar asosi ilmi guzosht. Daleli in, afzudani malumotho oid ba hayot, makhsusan, nazariya dar borai hujayra bud.

Hujayra chun asosi hayot muqarrar shud, ilmhoi fizikayu khimiya ru ba taraqqi nihodand. Bad az Paster to imruz yagon olimi digare kushish nakardaast, ki az mikroorganizmho yo organizmhoi nisbatan sodda paydo shudan yo nashudani mav-

judoti murakkabtarro isbot sozad. Tadqiqotho aknun ba masalai paydoishi hujayra, ki tarkib va sokhtori murakkabi khimiyavi dorad, nigaronida shudaand. In muammo manoi mushakhkhas kasb mekunad, zero masala nafaqat dar paydoishi hujayrai sodda, balki bo rohi suni az moddahoi gayriorganiki ba vujud ovardani hujayra meboshad. Holo olimon dar asosi dastovardhoi navtarini biologiya, astronomiya va fizika aqidahoi asrhoi guzashtaro dar borai abadi budani hayot az nav zinda karda istodaand.

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