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Osori paleoliti miyonai ToJikiston

Dar Osiyoi Miyona az marhilai badi hayoti bashari avvaliya – paleoliti miyona yodgorihoi farovon boqi mondaast. In zamoni nashunamoi madaniyati muste, zamoni mavjudiyati neandertalho bud, ki dar hududi paleoliti miyona va bolo az onho insoni navi imruza tashakkul yoftaast.

Dar in davr quvvahoi istehsolkunandai jamiyat nisbat ba davrai paleoliti poin teztar ba digarguni ru nihodand: tekhnikai tayyor kardani olot zudtar takmil yoft, shakli olatho nav va vazifai onho gunogun gardid. Odamon natanho nigoh doshtani otash, balki girondani onro yod giriftand. Navtarin usulhoi statistiki imkon medihad, ki dar nohiyahoi mukhtalif, az jumla dar Osiyoi Miyona chand mahalli maskuni asrisangii miyona, ki mumkin ast mavjudiyati yagon ittihodiyai kaloni jamoatiro inikos gardonand, oshkor karda shavad.

Maskanhoi sarkushoda va gori mustye dar bisyor joyhoi Osiyoi Miyona, chi dar qismhoi kuhsor va chi dar dashtu vohaho yoft shudand. CHunonchi, in qabil iqomatgohho dar Turkmaniston – dar nimjazirai Krasnovodsk va Kupetdogi Markazi, gorhoi qadima dar Uzbekiston – dar nazdikii Toshkand va Samarqand, maskanhoi sarkushodai ziyod dar Tojikiston – dar Fargonai garbi, nohiyai Uroteppa, vodihoi hisor va Vakhsh, nohiyai Dangara va nihoyat, dar solhoi okhir osori madaniyati mustye dar Qirgizistoni shimoli niz kashf gardidand.

paleolitMagoki Teshiktosh dar Ittifoqi Soveti va khorija shuhrati ziyod paydo namud[1]. Vay dar nazdikii shahri Tirmiz, dar vohai Turgondaryo, dar kuhsori Boysun voqe gardidaast. Dar in magok panj tabaqai maskun, ki neandertalhoi chandin bor ba manzili kuhnai khud bozgasht namuda boqi guzoshtaand, mushohida shudaast. Az in jo qarib 3 hazor masnuoti sangi paydo gardid, ki 339-toi on oloti komiya meboshad. Dar bayni onho du navi oloti khele mamul – kord va belchai sangi mavjud ast. Kord hamchun oloti burranda va silohi shikori khizmat mekard. Belcharo baroi sokhtu pardokhti darakht, pust istifoda menamudand. Olathoi digar khele kamand. Saydi asosii shikorchiyoni teshiktoshi buzi kuhii sibiri bud, ki dar kuhistoni Osiyoi Miyona bisyor duchor meomad. Gayr az in gavazn, khirs, palang va digar hayvonhoi khurdtarro niz shikor mekardand.

Tasodufan paydo shudani jasadi odami ahdi mustye – pisarbachai 8–9-sola voqeai doroi ahamiyati jahoni gardid. Az vaqti in bozyoft nazdik chil sol guzashta boshad ham, bostonshinoson ba yoftani digar kosai sari odami neandertal muvaffaq nashudaand, harchand ki holo dar mamlakati mo dahho makoni mustei malum ast. Dar girdi jasad (kosai sar va baze ustukhonhoi skeleti pisarbacha) shokhhoi buzi kuhi ba shakli halqa guzoshta shudaand, ki az in metavon bo niyati muayyan ba khok supurda shudani onro takhmin kard.

Kolleksiyai oloti sangii Teshiktosh bo osori digar magoraho purratar gardid. Az bayni onho magoki ba qaribi yoftashudai Obirahmatro, ki dar masofai 100 km durtar az Toshkand voqe ast, nom burdan mumkin ast. Materialhoi hafriyoti in yodgorii khele jolib hanuz mufassalan intishor nayoftaast. Az in magok beshtar az 30 hazor masnuoti davrai mustye paydo shud.

Dar vodii Sirdaryo, dar bayni Leninobod va Navkati Qayroqqum bisyor materialhoi muhim ba dast rasid. Oloti du marhilai davrai mustye dar in nohiya bo baqiyai sufahoi qadimai Sirdaryo aloqamand ast. In olatho dar reghoi obshustai sufaho jam shudaand. Dar in jo ham ba misli Teshiktosh aksari olotro belcha va kordhoi sangi tashkil mekunand, faqat farq dar in ast, ki onho na az ohaksangi chakhmoqii zudshikan, balki az sangi sakhti sumoq (porfirit) sokhta shudaand.

hamai in yodgoriho mutaalliqi madaniyati ba «istiloh levalluayu mustye» buda, bo yodgorihoi davrai mustyei sharqi Nazdik shabohat dorand[2].

Vale dar janubi Tojikiston yakchand yodgorihoi davrai mustye paydo shudand, ki tamoman khususiyati digar doshta, bo tamadduni hinduston va soiri kishvarhoi dar janubu garbi Tojikiston voqegardida nazdikand. Kalontarin mahalli in navi osori qadima Qarobura, voqe dar vodii Vakhsh (nazdiki Jillikul) az jonibi V.A. Ranov tadqiq shudaast. Vay az silsilai dungihoi na on qadar balandi regi iborat ast, ki rui onhoro ba gafsii du metr sangrezaho pushidaand. Masnuoti qadima mahz az bayni hamin sangrezaho yoft shudaand. Jolibi diqqat ast, ki dar in mahal dar qatori oloti muqarrarii mustye masnuoti makhsusi sangi – oloti haqiqii qayroqsang – chopper va chopping niz paydo gardid, ki bo hamin qabil masnuoti davrahoi badinai madaniyati Suoi hinduston bisyor monand ast.

hafriyoti maydonchai nazdi gori Ogzikichiki rayoni Dangara baroi tadqiqi madaniyati mustye materiali farovon dod. Az in jo dahho olathoi gunoguni sangi, az jumla, belchavu kordhoi gunogun ba dast omad, ki khele khub sokhta shudaand. Inchunin bisyor ustukhoni hayvon niz yoft shud, ki neandertaliho sayd karda budaand. Dar qatori ustukhoni hayvonhoi malume, ki to ba hol vujud dorand, ustukhoni karki darozpashm va asp barin hayvonhoe niz yoft shudand, ki to ba ruzhoi mo omada narasidaand.

Qismi boloii tabaqai maskuni (tabaqai arkheologii) in jo dar joi digar vonamekhurad va iborat az porahoi ba loy chaspidai rezai ustukhoni sangpushthoi dashtivu digar hayvonho meboshad. Aksari ustukhonporaho sukhtagiand va in dalolat mekunad, ki mardumi Ogzikichik dar hamon davraho asosan gushti sangpushtro istemol mekardaand[3].

Ba in tariqa, az davrai mustye sar karda, dar madaniyati asri sangii Osiyoi Miyona mushobihati du mintaqai buzurgi paleolit – Osiyoi sharqi va Miyonaro metavon mushohida namud. CHunin nazdikii madaniyathoro dertar, dar davrai neolit ham didan mumkin ast[4]. Mutobiqi madrakhoi navtarin, sinni osori asosii davrai mustye dar Osiyoi Miyona 50–40 hazor sol meboshad.[5]

[1] Okladnikov A.P., 1949.

[2] Okladnikov A. P., 1966 b, s. 48–49.

[3] Ranov V. A., 1975.

[4] Ranov V. A., 1965 6.

[5] Okladnikov A. P., 1966 6, s. 45–46; inchunin Ivanov I. K., 1965.

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