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Osori paleoliti bolo

Takhminan 40–35 hazor sol pesh tashakkuli navi imruzai bashar Homo sapiuns surat megirad.

Dar in davra asbobu oloti sangi bosurat takmil meyobad. Ba ivazi se-chor namudi asosii olathoi zamoni mustye asbobu abzorhoi gunoguni sangi ba vujud meoyand. Bo takmili asbobu olot hajmi onho khurdtar va vasilahoi shikor niz behtar megardad.

Dar davrai paleoliti bolo tashakkuli qabilaho shuru meshavad: qavmi modari, ki az guruhi ekzogamii odamoni bo rishtahoi kheshi va umumiyati nasabi modari bahampayvasta faroham omada budand, dar hamin davra ba darajai rushdu takomuli khud merasad.

Paleoliti boloi Osiyoi Miyona kam tadqiq shudaast. Zohiran, baraksi davrai mustye, sharoiti tabii na dar hamai nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona baroi zindagonii odamoni on davr musoid bud. Muhimtarin yodgorii paleoliti bolo qarorgohi Samarqand meboshad, ki dar daruni khudi shahr voqe gardidaast. Dar bayni hazoron masnuoti az se tabaqai maskuni badastomada abzorhoi mukhtalif, az qabili belcha, kord, asbobhoi taroshanda, buranda va gayra mavjudand. Soli 1964 az in jo jogi odami paleoliti bolo yoft shud. Sardori hafriyot D.N. Lev chunin takhmin dorad, ki odamoni in qarorgoh dar manzilhoi az gil va qamish sokhtashuda mezistaand. Ganimati shikori onho asosan asp, khar, govi vahshi, shutur, ohui dashti, gusfandi vahshi va gavazn budaast[1].

paleolit-2-225x300Digar yodgorii paleoliti bolo mahallest, ki bo nomi «Hojagor» mashhur buda, dar vodii khurdi silsilakuhi Turkiston, dar nazdikii dehai CHorkuh voqe ast[2]. In yodgori ba okhiri paleoliti bolo taalluq dorad; ehtimol meravad, ki odamon dar in jo 15–12 hazor sol pesh az in, yane dar ahdi kununii geologi zindagoni kardaand. Tabaqai maskuni in jo mahfuz namondaast, olathoi az sangi chakhmoq sokhtashudaro sel rufta burdaast[3]. Vale in yodgori az jihati farovonii anvoi oloti chakhmoqsang, ki bo shakl va sokhtu pardokhti khud az oloti boshishgohi Samarqand farq mekunad, jolibi diqqat ast.

Solhoi 1969–1970 dar boshishgohi SHugnov, ki dar boloobi YAkhsu voqe ast, chand tabaqai maskuni kashf shud. Dar in mahal dar magzi zardkhoki jarii panjohmetrai sohili daryo dar vusati kaloni maydon 4 tabaqai maskuni paleoliti bolo kofta shud. Sinni tabaqai qadimtarin, muvofiqi madrakoti geologiyu arkheologi 35–30 hazor sol va sinni tabaqai navtarin, muvofiqi usuli radiokarbonii muayyan kardani sana, 1050 sol meboshad. Az du tabaqai az hama bolo beshtar az hama oloti mehnat yofta shud. Tabaqahoi maskuni boshishgohi SHugnov chunon joygir shudaand, ki jihati stratigrafii onho vozeh ba nazar merasad va in ba arkheologho imkon medihad, ki inkishofi tadrijii madaniyati paleoliti boloi Tojikistonro ravshan tasavvur namoyand[4].

Ba madrakhoi digar niz istinod namuda, mumkin ast guft, ki dar Osiyoi Miyonai ahdi paleoliti bolo du ananai tekhniki mavjudiyati khudro davom medod, ki yake bo paleoliti Osiyoi sharqi va Sibir (qarorgohi Samarqand) va digare bo paleoliti Osiyoi Pesh (Hojagor) aloqamand bud.

[1] Lev D. N., 1965.

[2] Okladnikov A. P., 1964, s. 170.

[3] Nesmeyanov S. A., Ranov V. A., 1964.

[4] Ranov V. A., Nikonov A. A., Pakhomov M. M., 1976.

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