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Omuzishi atmosfera

Omuzishi atmosfera. Omuzishi atmosfera hamchun manbai hayot nihoyat muhim ast. Holo qabathoi gunoguni atmosfera ba vositai asbobhoi zamonavii avtomatiki, radio, moshinhoi elektronii hisobbaror, az jumla bo aerostat, kura-zond, radiozondu samolyotho, qabathoi boloii on bo yorii mushakhoi meteorologi, radifhoi masnuii Zamin tadqiq karda meshavand.

Atmosfera asosan tahti rohbarii tashkiloti umumijahonii meteorologi, ki ba on bisyor mamlakatho dokhiland, omukhta meshavad.

Baroi mushohidai atmosfera dar sharoiti gunogunn tabii dar sathi Zamin stansiyahoi zaminii meteorology vujud dorand va onho  bo asbobhoi chenkuni tajhizonida shudaand. CHunin stansiyaho dar mahalhoi gunogun (kuhho, hamvoriho, biyobon va hatgo boloi piryakhho, yakhhoi qutbi) mavjudaid. Mushohidagaroni stansiyaho nishondihandahoi asbobhoro dar yak shabonaruz kamash chor marotiba navishta, harorat, fishori havo, abrnoky, miqdori borishot, samt va surati bodro muayyan mekunand.

Omukhtani atmosferai boloi uqyonusho mujim ast va onro ba vositai kishtihoi ilmni tadqiqoti meomuzand. Gayr az in samolyotho va kishtihoi tijorati niz az khususi holati atmosfera ba markazhoi gidrometeorologi malumot medihand. Dar Tojikiston ham stansiyahoi meteorologii dar shahru nohiyaho mavjudbuda ba markazi gidrometeorologii poytakhtamon – shahri Dushanbe malumot medikhand.

Gafsii atmosferaro ba vositai radiozondho meomuzand. Dar stansiyahoi aerologi dar khushki va dar kishtihoi ilmii tadqiqoti dar yak shabonaruz kurahoi havoy, ki ba onho  asbobho guzoshta shudaand, du-se marotiba ba balandii 30-40 km bardoshta meshavand. Onho  dar borai harorat, fishor, rutubat va harakati havo dar balandikhoi gunogun malumo  jam meorand. In malumotho ba stansiyahoi meteorologi ba vositai radioperedatchikkhoi khurd firistoda meshvand.

Mushakhoi meteorologi boz ham balandtar, to 120 km mebaroyand. Dar balandii muayyan yak qismi mushakhoi asbobdor judo shuda, bo parashyutho ba sathi Zamin mefaroyand. CHunin mushakhoe niz hastand, ki atmosferaro to 400-500 km va balandtar az on tadqiq mekunand. Ba vositai onho  tarkibi havo dar balandihoi ziyod omukhta meshavad.

Radifhoi masnuii Zamin malumothoi bagoyat muhim medihand. Masalan, radifhoi makhsusi meteorologii Rusiya ’’Meteor”, ki bo tele- va fotoapparatho jihozonida shudaand, az balandii to 900 km dar borai holati atmosfera, protsesshoi obu havo, ki dar sathi Zamin dar maydoni vasegiash to 2000 km ba amal meoyand. ba Zamin malumot medihand. Malumot dar borai sarhadhoi barfpushi sathi Zamin, iflosin atmosfsra, sukhtori jangal, otashfishonii vulqonho  va pahnshavii khokistari onho ahamiyati kalon dorad. Az stansiyakhoi madorii darozmuddat ba zuhuroti dar atmosfera baamalomada mushohida kardani kayhonnavardon nihoyat purkimat ast.

Akidai Ibni Sino ond ba hodisahoi atmosferi. Abuali ibni Sino dar sohahoi ilmhoi geografiya, iqlimshinosi, botanika, zoologiya, riyoziyot, handasa (geometriya), astronomiya, fizika, khimiya va gayra bisyor (400) asarhoi purmazmun ejod iimudaast, ki nomi uro chi dar SHarq va chi dar Garbi avropi onvaqta mashhuru maruf gardondaand. Besabab nest, ki Abualy ibni Sinoro yake az buzurgtarin mutafakkironi hamai zamonhoyu khalkho shumoridaand.

Dar asarhoi Ibni Sino doir ba ilmhoi geografiya, az jumla oid ba iqlimshinosi malumothoi garonbaho doda shudaand.

Ibni Sino sokht va khodisahoi atmosoeri, radu barq, mohiyati nurioftob, inikosi shuo, tiru kamon va gayrahoro mavridi tadqiq qaror dodaast. Dar borai aksariyati khodisakhoi zikrshuda aqidakhoi ilmii olim ba khulosahoi ilmii zamoni hozira nazdik meboshad.

Ibni Siio doir ba garmshavy va ba bolo harakat kardani havoi atmosfera aqidai ba khaqiqat nazdikro dosht. Vay bugi obi atmosferaro hamchun manbai borishot mehisobid. Olim Dar hosilshavii tiru kamon dar atmosfera mavjud budani bugi obero, ki shuoi-oftob onro ravshan mekunad, shart mehisobad.

Az tasviri baze hodisahoi atmosferi ayon megardad, ki olim ba fahmishii ilmii hodisakhoi bugshavy, nami jamshavy nazdik bud. Sababi paydoishi bodro olim dar nobarobar garmshavii sathi Zamin va ba vujud omadani farqi fyshor mehisobid.

Savol va suporish

  1. Az rasmi 63 istifoda burda dar borai atmosfera naql kuned.
  2. Dar troposfera kadom hodisaho rukh medihand?
  3. CHaro omukhtani at-mosfera muhim ast? Bo dalelho onro isbot kuned.
  4. Atmosferaro chy tavr meomuzand?
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