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Oilai zanbaqiho

Ba oilai zanbaqiho 4000 namudi rastanihoi bisyorsolai alafi dokhil meshavand. Onho beshtar dar mintaqahoe pahn shudaand, ki tobistonash garmu khushk va bahoru tiramohash kamborish ast.

Zanbaqiho giyohhoi piyozakbekh, lundapiyozak va reshapoyador meboshand. Bargi onho neshtarshakl, tasmamonand va darozruya meshavad.

zanbaqiho

Guli rastanihoi mansubi oilai zanbaqiho doroi gulpushi oddi buda, payvastgulbarg yo judogulbarg meboshad. Miqdori gulbargho va gardbargho shashtogiand. Guli zanbaqiho dujinsa buda, onho mayda yo kaloni khele khub nazarrasand. Gulho dar khushagulhoi gunogunshakl joygirand. Bazan yakto guli toqa dorand.

Guli lola yake az namoyandagoni mamuli oilai zanbaqiho meboshad. Lola rastanii khudrui zebotarin ba hisob rafta, nav- bahoron gul mekunad. Bisyor navhoi gunoguni mazruii on ba vujud ovarda shudaast. Har yak navniholi lola 59 yakto gul dorad. Gulpushash judobargi oddi ast. Gulbarghoi gulpush setogi dar du davra (seto dar davrai berun va setoi digar dar davrai darun) joy giriftaand. Majmui gulbargho dar yakjoyagi shakli zangulai kalonro girifta, rangashon surkh, zard, safed, bunafsh meboshad.

Gardbargho niz shashto buda, dar du davra setogi joy giriftaand. Dar miyonajoi gul tukhmdoni kalon joygir ast, ki az sutuncha va gard- giraki separra iborat ast.

Nishondodhoi boloiro ba etibor girifta, formulai guli lola umuman zanbaqihoro in tavr tasvir kardan mumkin ast: l G M [1]

Mevai lola guzai sertukhmi khushk meboshad. Umuman, dar Tojikiston 25 namudi lolai khudruy meruyad. Gulshukufti lola az mohi aprel-may to mohi iyun davom mekunad.

Lola dar talu teppaho. domanakuhho, dar jangalzori pistayu fark va bodomu archazorho nashuiamo karda, ba gabiat husni toza zam mekunad. Vale, mutaassifona, baze odamon (khususan kudakonu navrason) oqibati kori khudro naandeshida, dar fasli bahor onro beinsofona bisyor mechinand. Az in ru, sol az sol mikdori on kam shuda, maydoni tabiii rushdu numui on makhdud shuda istodaast. Ba- roi hifzi on hamchun rastanii nodiru purqimat, ki ba on khatari nestshavi tahdid mekunad, guli lola ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tojikis- ton” dokhil karda shudaast.

Seleksioneron (navofarandagon) az baze namudhoi nodiri lola navhoi ziyodero ba vujud ovardaand. In navho bo husnu tarovati zeboyashon gulgashtu khiyobonho, gulbogu chorboghoro oro medihand.

Rastanii digari foidanoku kamyofti zanbaqiho holmon mebo- shad. Holmon giyohi bisyorsolai piyozakbekh ast. Poyai rost doshta, az 40—50 sm to 150 sm qad mekashad. Vay rastanii serbarg buda, bargash jadvalmonand, neshtarshakl va jilodori nugtez meboshad. Gulhoyash kaloni zangulashakl, rangi gulbarghoyash surkh, surkhi norinjy, zardi surkhtob meshavad. Holmon mohi aprelu may gul mekunad va meva mebandad. Mevaash guzai parranoki sertukhm meboshad.

Holmon dar nohiyahoi markazi va janubii Tojikiston dar zeri buttavu darakhton, dar nishebihoi sersangu regdor vomekhurad. Mi- qyosi pahnshaviash niz chun guli lola sol az sol mahdud megardad. Zero bisyor odamon onro baroi gulhoi zebo va ohari (nishostai) piyozakbekhash berahmona jamovari mekunand. Holmon niz ba “Ki- tobi Surkhi Tojikiston” dokhil karda shuda, zeri himoyai qonun qaror dorad.

Rastanii digari in oila, ki khushaguli kalonu zebo dorad, sich yo such (shiresh) meboshad. Sich giyohi khudruy buda, barghoi nazdireshagii tasmashaklu sermagz dorad. Az mobayni in bargho poyai rosti bebarg, ki az 0,5 to 2 m darozi dorad, mesabzad.

Dar qismi muayyani (boloii) poyaash gulhoi khurdi rangashon safed, gulobii zard va surkh (vobasta ba namudhoi gunoguni sich) inkishof yofta, boisi paydo shudani khushaguli darozi (to 120 sm) silindrshakl meshavand. Dar khushaguli baze namudhoi sich (masalan, sichi azimjussa) to 800 gul joygir shuda metavonad.

Dar Tojikiston 28 namudi sich ma- lum ast. Sich dar zaminhoi sanglokh, zeri jangalhoi zarangu fark, bodomu pista va dar bayni buttahoi nastaran va kamolu yugan meruyad.

Az reshai bisyor namudkhoi sich shi- resh va baroi rang namudani ma- tohoi pakhtagin va abreshimin ranghoi gunogun ba dast ovarda meshavad.

Bisyor namudhoi sich, ki khushaguli zebo dorand, hamchun rastanii oroishi baroi parvarish dar khiyobonu gulgashtho tavsiya shudaand.

Hamchun rastanii khonagi dar guldonho rastanii bisyorsolai hame- shasabzi oroishi va davoi ud (aloe, sabr)-ro parvarish meku- nand. Ud dar sharoiti tabii giyohi hameshasabzi darakhti meboshad Poyai rosti sershokhu serbargi ud to 4 m qad mekashad. Bargash sham- shershakli sergushtu serobi tagoyakmonand meboshad. Hushaguli da- rozu (20-40 sm) zugutashakli sergul dorad. Gulbarghoyash norinji, mevaash guzai sertukhm ast.

  1. Az rui kadom alomathoyashon rastanihoi oilai zanbaqihoro ba sinfi yakpallagiho dokhil mekunand?
  2. Sokhti guli lola chi guna ast?
  3. Formulai guli rastanihoi oilai zanbaqihoro chi tavr tasvir mekunand?
  4. Mevai rastanihoi oilai zanbaqiho chi guna sokht dorad?
  5. Gulpushi sodda az gulpushi murakkab chi farq dorad?

[1]Agar gul pegiguli sodda, yane tanho kosagul yo gulbarg doshta boshad, onro bo 0 yo G ifoda mekunand.

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