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Oilai tutho

Ba in oila taqriban 1700 kheli rastanihoi shaklashon buttagivu darakhti, lianmonand (chubrost), hameshasabz yo khazonrez va baze giyohhoi yaksola va bisyorsola dokhil meshavand. Aksari onho dar mintaqahoi tropiki va subtropikii kurai Zamin mesabzand. Dar Tojikiston az oilai tutho makhsusan navhoi gunoguni tut va anjir vase parvarish karda meshavand.

 Rastanihoi oilai tutho
Rasmi 19. Rastanihoi oilai tutho

Tana, shokh va bargi aksari khelhoi ba in oila dokhilshavanda, hangomi kharoshidan yo jarohatyoby az khudashon shirai shirmonand khorij mekunand. Joygirshavii bargashon navbati buda, nazdbarga niz dorand.

Gulho dar khushagulhoi gunogunshakl – gushvorak, khusha, jorubak va gayraho joygir meboshand. Gulho yakjinsa buda, gulbarg nadorand, kosabarg az yak to hasht adad va miqdori gardbargho tagyiryo- banda meboshad. Mikdori mevabarg yakto buda, yak yo duto gardgirak dorad. Gardoludshavii rastanihoi oilai tutho bo tufayli shamol va hasharoti makhsus ba amal meoyad.

Mevai onho gujummeva ast. Dar tukhmashon endosperm dorand. Bisyor rastanihoe, ki ba in oila dokhil meshavand, rastanihoi foidanok ba hisob rafta, az zamonhoi qadim injonib parvarish karda meshavand. YAke az mamultarin namoyandai in oila tut meboshad. Tut darakhti khazonrez buda, dar mamlakatamon du namudi on: tuti safed va siyoh (shohtut) beshtar mamuland. Har du namudi tut darakhti yak yo dukhonagi buda, shakli barghoyashon gunogun mebo- shad. Az khushaguli gushvorakshakli on gujummeva paydo meshavad.

Dar ayni zamon, qarib 400 navi tut ba vujud ovarda shudaast. Hususan, navhoi tuti bedona, balkhi, marvoridak, mavizak, jirtut, safedak va gayraho dar nohiyahoi gunoguni Tojikiston az zamonhoi qadim injonib parvarish karda meshavand. Tut rastanii ba khushki nihoyat tobovar buda, dar khokhoi nisbatan kamgizo metavonad nagz nashunamo kunad. Tutro asosan tavassuti dona (tukhm)-ash va in- chunin bo rohi payvandkuni ziyod mekunand. Darakhti tut 200-300 sol umr mebinad.

Mevai tut shirin buda, dar tarkibash ziyoda az 10% moddai kandi dorad. Onro dar shakli taru toza yo khushkkonidashuda istemol mekunand. Agar az tuti khushki kuftashuda talqon tayyor kunand, az mevai taru tozai on shirini mepazand.

Hususiyati shifobakhshii darakhti tut az qadimulayyom malum ast. Abuali ibni Sino tuti khushkonidashudaro (mevaashro) baroi tabobati kasalihoi gunoguni medayu ruda tavsiya dodaast.

Hususan, tuti safed doroi ahamiyati kaloni sanoaty meboshad. Bargi onro ba sifati mavodi khuroka baroi parvarishi kirmi pil- la (abreshim) istifoda mebarand. Ba in maqsad, istifoda shudani bargi tut dar qitai Osiyo (Hitoy) ziyoda az 2500 sol boshad, dar Evropa ziyoda az 1000 solro tashkil medihad.

Tutanjir yake az avlodkhoi sershumortarini oilai tutho ba hisob rafta, taqriban 1000 khelro darbar megirad. Aksari onkho dar mintaqahoi tropikii namnok vase pahn gardida, dar chunin sharo- it onho darakhtoni hameshasabz meboshand.

Mevai anjirro dar shakli taru toza, khushkonidashuda va sharbathoi gunogun istemol mekunand.Dar Tojikiston du namudi anjir dar shakli khudruy va ham mazru parvarish karda meshavad. Dar sharoiti Tojikiston anjir darakhti nachandon kaloni khazonrez meboshad. Bargi on panjashakli az 3 to 7 parra ast. Vay rastanii dukhonagi buda, khushaguli nok- monandi darunkholi dorad. Guli anjir makhsusiyati ba khud khos doshta, tanho tavassuti zanbure, ki nomash blastofag ast, gardolud meshavad. Az khushaguli gardoludshuda gujummeva paydo meshavad, ki shakli murud, lunda yo kulchamonandi rangash zard, sabz, bunafsh, yo burmonand buda, sertukhmu sergusht meshavad. Mevai an- jir sergizo meboshad va dar tarkibash 12-28% kand, inchunin safeda, ohar, vitaminhoi gunogun, namakhoi organiki va elementhoi ohan, fosfor, kal- siy, mis va magniy dorad. CHunin tarkiboti boi khimiyavi va khushtamii mevai anjir guvohi medihad, ki vay khosiyati balandi parhezi va shifobakhshi dorad.

Anjir asosan dar mamlakathoi so- hili Bahri Miyonazamin, Osiyoi Hurd, Eron, Afgoniston, Zakavkaziya va dar Tojikiston boshad, dar nohiyahoi garmi janubi parvarish karda meshavad.

  1. Alomathoi khosi rastanihoi oilai tuthoro nombar kuned.
  2. Kadom namoyandahoi khosi onhoro medoned? •
  3. Tut va anjir dar hayoti inson chi ahamiyat dorand?
  4. Anjir tavassuti kadom hasharot gardolud meshavad?
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