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Oilai tugmachagulho

Tugmachagulho, ki bo iborai digar onhoro khayrigulho kham menomand, 1600 khelro darbar megirand. Onho asosan rastanihoi mintaqahoi tropiki va subtropiki buda, mikdori kami khelhoyashon dar mamlakathoi iqlimashon mutadil nashunamo mekunand. Tugmachagulho rastanihoi yaksola, bisyorsola buda, bazan shaklhoi buttagi va darakhtiashon niz vomekhurand.

rasPoya va navdahoi tugmachagulho az berun bo muyakchahoi sitorashakl pushida meboshand. Dar onho moddahoi zahrnok va alkaloidho dida nameshavand.

Joygirshavii barg dar poyayu navda ba tavri navbati meboshad. Pakhnaki barg panjashakl yo panjashakli chukur buridashuda meboshad.

Gulho yaktogi dar bagali barg yo dar baze holatkho dar khushaguli nugi joygir meboshand. Gulpushi duchanda az 5 kosabargi bo kham chaspida va 5 gulbargi ozod iborat ast. Dar baze namoyandagoni alokhidai in oila, bar zammi kosabarg, boz zerkosabarg niz dida meshavad. Mikdori gardbargkho bisyor buda, onho dar asosi gulbargho bo ham chaspidaand. Tukhmdon az se yo bisyor mevabargho iborat ast. Sutuichai gardgirak yakto yo bisyor ast. Mevai tugmachagulkho khushki guzamonand yo chormagzaki yaktukhmdor meboshad.

Ba in oila bisyor rastanikhoi qimatbahoi tekhniki va ravgandi- handa mansuband.

Pakhta asosan rastanii buttagi yo darakhti bisyorsola buda, dar sharoiti Tojikiston hamchun rastanii yaksola parvarish karda me- shavad.

Guli pakhta az panj gulbargi ozodi rangi zarddoshta iborat buda, rastanii khudgardoludshavanda hisob shavad kham, metavonad tavassuti hasharot niz gardolud shavad. Ba in mavjudiyati shahddonho dar gul guvokhi medihand. Az in ru, pakhta rastanii khubi asalovar meboshad.

Mevai pakhta guzai se yo paijlonagi asg. Tukhmashoi bisyor ast. Tukhmho bo nakhhoi darozi az yak huchayra iboratbuda pushida shudaand (dar yak tukhm to 7 khazor nakh dida meshavad). Darozii har yak nakh taqriban az 40 to 50-60 mm merasad.

Dar miqyosi jahon pakh- ta rastanii nakhdihandai asosi ba hisob meravad. Vay taqriban 75%-i nakhi baroi sanoati bofandagi behad zarurro medihad. Az tukhmi pakhta ravgan istehsol meku.nand. Az gulbarghoi guli pakhta rang hosil kardan mumkin ast. Kunjora va puchoqi chigiti pakhtaro hamchun khuroki chorvo istifoda mebarand.

Dar nazdi istiqomat- gohho, kanori rohho, kishtzoru bogho, dar bay- ni ziroathoi kishovarzi hamchun alafi begona ras- tanii gulash safedu meva- ash tugmachamonand vo- mekhurad, ki onro tugmacha- gul yo mubofak menomand.

Tugmachagul rastanii yak-du va bisyorsola buda, dar Tojikis- ton 8 namudi on meruyad. Aksari in namudho qarib dar hamai nohiyahoi jumhuriamon vomekhurand.

Baze namudhoi tugmachagulro hamchun rastanii sabzavoti baroi tayyor kardani sambusai alafi va harguna khurishho istifoda mebarand. Dar tibbi khalqi onro baroi tabobati kasalihoi gunogun istifoda mebarand. Inchunin, hamai namudhoi tugmachagul khosiyati asalovari dorand va onho khuroki sergizoi chorvo ba hisob meravand.

Guli khayri rastanii yak-du va bisyorsola buda, bargi sodda, yaklukht, panjashakl va yo parmonand dorad. Dar guli on, ba juz 5 kosabarg va 5 gulbarg, boz az 6 to 9 zerkosabarg dida meshavad. Mikdori gardbargho bisyor buda, dumchaashon 5 – qirra ast.

Guli khayri doroi gulhoi kaloni rangorang buda, onro hamchun rastanii oroishi dar khiyobonu gulgashtho, boghoi istirohati va gayraho parvarish mekunand. Namudhoi khudruyi guli khayri dar jangalu margzorhoi subalpi, bodomu pistazor va nishebihoi re- gii kuhho va gayra vase pahn shudaand.

Namudhoi gunoguni guli khayri az yakdigarashon az rui gunogunii rangi gulbargashon (safed, bunafsh, bunafshi bur, safedi shirchoy- monand), shakli gul va miqdori zerkosabargashon farq mekunand.

Guli khayri ahamiyati kalon doshta, az gulbarghoi on rang hosil mekunand, ki on baroi rangin namudani mavodhoi khuroki, nusho- kiho va matoho istifoda meshavad. Guli khayri rastanii asalovar buda, resha, meva va guli onro dar tib baroi muolijai kasaliho istifoda mebarand. Dar tarkibi tukhmi onho to 20% rav- gan hast, ki dar sohai rangubor qimati balandi amali dorad.

Dar bayni maydonhoi kishti pakhta, juvorimakka, yunuchqa, rasta- nihoi sabzavoti va inchunin dar sari rohu kanori juyborho mo bo rastanii qadash balandu kamshokharonda, ki barghoi kaloni dilshakl va gulhoi zard dorad, duchor meoem, ki onro mardumoni mahalli nonfarak menomand.

Nonfarak guzamevai zardi siyohtob va tukhmi gurdashakli kho- kistarrangi tira yo siyohtob dorad. Nonfarak rastanii nakh va rav- gandihanda ast. Az nakhi on argamchin, kanab, resmon, rishta va gayra tayyor mekunand. Poyai khushkshudai nonfarak to 25% nakh va tukhmash to 16-20% ravgan dorad. Ravgani onro dar korkhonahoi sobunpazi va istehsoli alif istifoda mebarand.

  1. Alomathoi umumii oilai tugmachagulhoro nombar kuned.
  2. Kadom rastanihoi oilai tugmachagulhoro medoned?
  3. Tugmachagulho chi ahamiyat dorand?
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