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Oilai nastaraniho

Ba oilai nastaraniho ziyoda az 3000 namudi rastanihoi alafi, buttagi va darakhti mansub ast. Dar Tojikiston taqriban 142 namudi rastanihoi khudruy va mazruii oilai nastaraniho malumand. Sokhti bargashon gunogun buda, dar darakhti seb, nok, bihi va gayra sodda, dar shohtuti zamini va marminjon — sechanda, dar nastaran – parmonandi murakkab meboshad. Joygirshavii barg dar rastanihoi ba in oila taalluqdoshta navbati buda, onho nazdbarga dorand.

Guli nastaraniho dar alohidagi (toqa-toqa) dar bagali bargu navda yo dar khushagulhoi gunogun joygirand. Guli onho dujinsa buda, ba tufayli hasharot gardolud meshavand. Gulpushi onho duchanda buda, gul az 5 kosabarg va 5 gulbarg iborat ast. Dar aksariyati onho, ba gayr az 5 kosabarg, boz 5 zerkosabarg dida meshavad (dar shohtuti zamini, qulfinay va gayra). Gulbargho rangi safed, zard, surkh, gulobi dorand. Dar aksariyati namoyandagoni oilai iastaraniho mikdori gardbargho ziyod va ozod buda, onho dar kanori gulband yo kosacha inkishof meyoband.

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Tukhmdoni guli nastaranikho yakto yo bisyor buda, az mevabarghoi ozod yo payvast tarkib yoftaast. Gurai nastaraniho dar miyonjoi gulbandi pahn (yane, gura mobayni), barjasta (yane, gura boloi) yo qadahshakl (gura poyony) joy giriftaast. Formulai umumii guli nastaraniho chunin ast: K(5)5 T5 Gu M|(5)

Mevai rastanikhoi in oila khushki chormagzak, bargaki sershumor yo tarmevai serdona meshavad.

Gulbandi gulhoi on rastanihoi oilai nastaranikho, ki tukhmdo- ni bisyor dorand, metavonad barobari pukhta rasidani meva (masa- lai dar shohtuti zamini va nastaran) sabzishashro davom doda, serobu sershira gardad.

Gulhoi digar namoyandagoni nastaraniho (chunonchi, olubolu, olu, shaftolu, zardolu) faqat yakto tukhmdon dorand va az in ru mevai onho donakdor ast. Seb, nok, bihi, gubayro va dulona mevaashon ba navi makhsusi “sebak” taalluq dorand.

Dar baze namudhoi alafii nastaranikho, chunonchi, dar rastanii panjai zog barkhilofi digar namoyandagoni in oila, gul 4 kosabarg va 4 gulbarg dorad.

Namoyandai nisbatan mamuli darakhtii oilai nastaraniho, ki dar shakli khudruy va mazru vomekhurad seb va nok meboshad.

Seb darakhti nachandon kalon meboshad. Reshai tirreshai on to 5 m ba zeri zamin chuqur meravad. Seb az 100 (sebi bogi) to 300 sol (sebi khudrui kuhi) umr mebinad.

Seb tanai rosti ba bolo qadkashida doshta, az on miqdori ziyodi navdaho ba har taraf shokha meronand. Bargi seb sodda buda, dar fasli bahor pesh az bargbarori darakht gul mekunad. Guli seb rangi shirchoy yo gulobi dorad. Gulho dar khushagul joygir shudaand. Gul az 5 kosabarg, 5 gulbarg, yak tukhmdon iborat buda, mikdori ziyodi gardbargho dorad.

Az rui sokhti gul nok va seb bo ham monand buda, onkho az rui shakli meva va shokharoniashon farq mekunand. Agar navdahoi seb az poya ba har samt sabzand, dar nok navdaho odatan ba bolo qad mekashand. Inchunin dar mevai nok khujayrachahoi sanggardida (sakhtshuda) hastand, ki hangomi istemol ba osoni ehsos karda meshavand.

Nokro niz ba monandi seb az tukhmash ziyod mekunand va ba niholhoi bavoyarasidaistoda navhoi behtarini nokro payvand mekunand. Pukhtarasii mevai nok chun seb az mohi iyun shuru shuda, to mohi oktyabr davom mekunad.

Dar Tojikiston 7 namudi nok vomekhurad. CHor namudi on khudruy (noki anjirak, kayon, murud va murudi khirsak) buda, se namudi digarash (noki muqarrari, shakarmurud, turunj) dar nohiyakhoi gunoguni jumhuriamon az qadimulayyom parvarish karda meshavand.

B ihi darakhti nachandon kaloni (az 1,5 to 5 m qad mekashad) sershokhu barg meboshad. Gulash kaloni dujinsa buda, rangi gulbarghoyash safed yo gulobii khushbuy meboshad. Gulkunii on badi dar navdaho bo purragi paydo shudani barg shuru meshavad. Mevaash kulula yo nokshakli zard buda, magzi zardi kamob va khushbuy dorad.

Taqriban 400 navi bihi ba vujud ovarda shudaast. Odatan bihi- ro tavassuti qalamcha, bekhjastash va tukhmash ziyod mekunand. Ba tufayli payvand boshad, navhoi khushsifatu bolazzati onro ba vujud meovarand.

Tobovarii bihi nisbati khunuki ziyod buda, dar Tojikiston navhoi mahallii on (bihii chillagi, nokbihi, miyonapazak, derpazak) va navhoi ba sharoiti mahal beshtar mutobiqshudai onro (bikhii qizilqurgoni, farovoni, samarqandii kalonmeva, turshbihii bukhoroi va bihii yaponi)-ro ba tavri vase parvarish mekunand. Mevai bihi sergizo buda, az on marmelad, jem, sharbathoi guno- gun tayyor mekunand. Tabiboni khalqi meva va tukhmi onro baroi ta- bobati kasalihoi gunogun istifoda mebarand.

Zardolu pesh az bargbarori gul mekunad. Rangi gulhoyash safed, surkh yo gulobi buda, tavassuti hasharot va shamol gardolud meshavad. Mevai zardolu donakdor buda, vobasta ba navhoyash rangi safed, zard yo gulobi dorad. Donaki zardolu az ravgan boy ast. Ravgani onro dar tib istifoda mebarand.

YAke az namoyandagoni buttashakli oilai nastaraniho nastaran yo khuch meboshad. Poya, dumcha va raghoi bargash bo khorakhoi kutohi nugtez pushida gardidaand, ki onho nastaranro az hayvonoti alafkhur muhofizat mekunand. Bargi khuch murakkab va kanori pah- nakash arrashakl meboshad.

Formulai guli nastaran chunin ast: K5 T5 G^ M . Hamin tavr, gulpushi guli on az 5 kosabarg va 5 gulbargi rangini kalon iborat ast. Mikdori gardbargu tukhmdonash bisyor meboshad.

Guli nastaran gulbandi sergushti qadakhmonand dorad. Badi bordorshavi har yak tukhmdon ba mevatukhm tabdil yofta, majmui onho dar gulbandi qadahmonandi nastaran joygir buda, mevai qalbakiro paydo mekunand.

Dar Tojikiston 18 namudi nastaran meruyad. Namudhoi gunoguni nastaran dar sohili daryochahoi kuhi, domanakuhho, dar bayni jangalzori farku bodom, archazoru angatzor va oluchazor, dar balandihoi 400 – 3600 m az sathi bahr vase pahn shudaand.

Nastaranro dar korhoi seleksioni baroi ba vujud ovardani navhoi zeboyu diloroi sadbarg istifoda mebarand. Mevai nastaran manbai boyi vitamini S meboshad. Az gulbarghoi navhoi gunoguni (oroishii) nastaran va sadbarg moddahoi khushbuy istehsol mekunand, ki dar sohai atriyot mavridi istifoda meboshand.

Sadbarg — guli khushbuy va doroi ranghoi gunogun (safed, gulobi, surkh, shirchoi, surkhi siyohchatob va gayraho) meboshad. Sadbargro az davrahoi qadim injonib dar Eron, Hinduston, Hitoy va bisyor mamlakathoi jahon parvarish mekunand. Bisyor shoiron dar vasfi zeboii sadbarg sherho ejod kardaand.

Hamin tavr, guli sadbarg ba kuchabogu gulgashthoi shahru dehot husni toza zam mekunad. Inchunin az gulbarghoi on ravgani purqimat megirand. Dar sanoati khurokvori az gulbarghoi on sharbathoi gunogun va murabbo tayyor mekunand.

Marminjon rastanii mamuli oilai nastaraniho ast. Vay dar sohili daryochavu kanori juyboru kanalho, chashmaho va dar joyhoi sernam boavj nashunamo karda, bargu poyaash anbuhi devori kasnoguzarro ba vujud meovarand. Mevai marminjon khushtam va khushbuy meboshad. Dar tarkibi mevai marminjon glyukoza (2,8- 3,6%), fruktoza (3,1-3,2%), sakharoza (0,3-0,6%) va vitamini S (bo miqdori ziyod) dida meshavand. Marminjon rastanii bisyorsolai nimbuttagi buda, tana, dumcha va raghoi markazii barg bo khorchahoi nugtez ihota gardidaand. Gulpushi duchandai on az 5 kosabarg va 5 gulbarg iborat ast. Gardbarg va tukhmdoni bisyor dorad. Mevai marminjon murakkab va siyohi kabudrang meboshad 35 .

  1. Kadom rastanihoi ba shumo malum ba oilai nastaraniho dokhil meshavand?
  2. Sokhti guli nastaraniho chi gunaand?
  3. Kadom rastanihoi mevadihandai oilai nastaranihoro medoned?
  4. Az rui sokhti gulashon rastanihoi oilai nastaraniho az oilai chillikgulho bo chi farq mekunand?
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