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Oilai labgulho

Ba oilai labgulho 3500 namudi rastaniho dokhil meshavand, ki az in 198 namudi on dar Tojikiston mesabzand.

Aksari rastanihoi in oila alafi yaksola, bisyorsola va nimbuttagi buda, faqat dar mintaqahoi tropiki baze shaklhoi darakhtii onho vomekhurad.

Namoyandagoni oilai labgulho poyai chorqirra dorand. Bargi onho soddai kanorhoyash yaklukht buda, dar poya ba tavri rubaru joygirand.

rasta

Hamai rastanihoi in oila bui ba khud khos dorand, ki on ba mavjudiyati ravgani efir (dar muyakchahoi gadudii uzvhoyashon) dar kulli uzvhoi on vobasta ast.

Andoza va rangi guli rastanihoi labgulon khele gunogun ast. Lekin dar hama holatho sokhti gul dar hamai namoyandagoni on tarhi (sokhtori) umumii ba khud khos dorand. Formulai umumii guli oilai labgulho chunin ast: K(5) 3+2) T(2+3) G42 M(2). Guli onho gulpushi duchanda dorad.

Kosachai gul az 5 kosabargi bo hamdigar payvast (bazan shakli du labro dorad) iborat ast. Tojgul az 5 gulbarg (duto gulbarg bo ham chaspida, labi boloiro va setoi digari gulbargho bo ham chaspida, labi poyoniro tashkil dodaand) iborat ast. Az in sabab onho sokhti du labro doshta, nomi oila az in jo girifta shudaast. Mikdori gardbargho 2-to, bazan 4-to meboshad. Gura az 2 mevabarg tarkib yoftaast.

Namoyandagoni oilai labgulho rastanihoi muhimi dorui va tekhniki (manbai ravgani efir), oroishi va khuroki meboshand. Dar tarkibi rastanihoi oilai labgulho moddahoi zahrnok dida nameshavand.

Pudina rastanii bisyorsolai reshapoyador ast va to 150 sm qad mekashad. Poyaash khazanda, khamida yo rosti nisbatan sershokha meshavad. Hushagulash serguli az gulhoi maydai rangashon gulobi yo gulobii nofarmon iborat ast. Davrai gulshukufti on az fasli tobiston to fasli tiramoh davom mekunad.

Pudina odatan dar kanori juyu kanalho, sohili daryo va kulu obanborho, dar botloqzorho, dar bogu kanori rohho to balandii 3500 m az sathi bahr meruyad. Dar Tojikiston 4 namudi pudina mesabzad, ki az hama pahnshudatarinash pudinai sharqi va nano yo pudinai bogi meboshad.

Pudina rastanii ravgani efirdor, asalovar va dorui ast. Ravgani efir, mentol va digar moddahoro, ki az bargi pudina ba dast meovarand, dar tib va baroi istehsoli mavodi khushbuy (atr), sobun, khamirai dandon va inchunin, dar sanoati qannodi istifoda mebarand. Hususiyati doruii pudina hanuz dar zamonhoi qadim malum bud. Ba in navishtahoi olimoni buzurgi tojik — Zakariyoi Rozi, Abuali ibni Sino, Aburayhon Beruni va bisyor digar tabi- bonu mutafakkironi Mashriqzamin shahodat medihand. Dar tibbi khalqi va muosir pudinaro baroi tabobati ziqqi dil, shaqika, iltihobi medayu ruda, chigar, illati gurda va gayra istifoda mebarand.

Rastanii digari khushbuy va khushtamkunandai khurok rayhon meboshad. Rayhon rastanii yaksola buda, to 80 sm qad kashida, bargi dumchadori bayzashakl dorad. Gulhoi khurdi gulobi, bazan safedi on dar khushagul joygir shudaand.

Bargu poyai taru toza va yo khushkkardai onhoro hamchun mavodi khushtamkunandai khurok va baroi khushbuy kardani nushokiho istifoda mebarand.

Ba juz pudina, rayhon hamchun vositai khushtamu khushbuykunandai khurok va nushokiho — kokuti (bo iborai digar pudinai lalmi) va jamilakro nombar kardan mumkin ast. Dar baze mamlakatho guli kokutiro baroi rang kardani matohoi pashmin (onho rangi surkhu norinchiro ba khud megirand) istifoda mebarand.

Niyozbu rastanii alafii bisyorsola meboshad. To 90 sm qad mekashad. Poyai rosti shokharonda doshta, bo muyakchahoi kutoh va darozi gadudi pushida shudaast. Bargash sodda buda, kanorhoi barg kame nohamvoriho doshta bo muyakchahoi nachandon bisyor pushida shudaast.

Niyozbu dar bogu kishtzorho, sohili daryo va chashmaho, kanori juyborho dar balandii az 600 to 1800 m az sathi bahr vomekhurad.

Niyozbu bui limuro dorad, binobar on onro limugiyoh yo nanoi limui niz menomand. Bargi onro dar sanoati khurokvori baroi khushbuy namudani nushokiho va khushtam kardani khurok, inchunin dar sanoati atriyot va tayyor namudani sobun istifoda mebarand. Niyozburo dar tibbi khalki baroi tabobati kasalihoi gulu ba kor mebarand. Niyozbu hamchun rayhon rastanii khubi asalovar ast.

  1. Baroi rastanihoi oilai labgulho kadom alomatho khosand?
  2. CHaro in oilaro labgulon meguyand?
  3. Sokhti guli labgulho chi guna ast?
  4. Formulai sokhti guli oilai labgulhoro sharh dihed.
  5. Rastanihoi oilai labgulho chi ahamiyat dorand?
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