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Oilai kuknorgulho

Ba oilai kuknorgulho taqriban 600 kheli rastanikho taalluq dorand. Onho giyohhoi yaksola, bisyorsolai alafi, bazan nimbuttavu butta va darakhtoni na on qadar kalon meboshand. Poyaashon sershokha buda, az berun bo muyakchahoi durusht pushida gardidaand. Joy- girshavii bargashon dar poya navbati buda, pahnaki barg parmo- nandi ba hissaho judoshuda meboshad.

Guli kuknorgulkho kalonandozai rangin buda, toqa-toqa yo dar khushagul joygirand. Gulpushi gul duchand ast. Duto kosabarg dorand, ki barvaqt meaftand. Tojbargho az chor gulbargi rangash surkh, zard yo shirchoymonand iboratand. Miqdori gardbargho khele ziyod buda, tukhmdon az 1-2 yo in ki az mevabarghoi bisyor tarkib yoftaast.

Rastanihoi oilai kuknorgulon
Rasmi 18. Rastanihoi oilai kuknorgulon

Gura yaklonagi yo qalbak, bisyorlonagi meboshad. Mevaashon guza- monandi sertukhm ast. Dar tarkibi tukhmashon miqdori ravgan va safeda khele ziyod ast.

Aksariyati namoyandagoni oilai kuknorgulho rastanihoi zahr- nok ba hisob meravand. Lekin yak qismi muayyani onho ba sifati rastanihoi davoi, khuroki (istemoli) va oroishi mavridi isti- fodaand. Baze khelhoi onho chun alafi begona dar kishtzorhoi kishovarzi vase pahn gardidaand.

Lolaarusak dar mintaqahoi margzor, beshazori pahnbarg, nimbiyobon va dar bogho nashunamo karda, qarib 110 kheli rastanihoro darbar megirad. Aksari onho khudruyand. Hususan, lolaarusak dar bayni kishti ziroathoi khushadoru lubiyo chun alafi begona boavj gul karda, maydoni kishtzorro chun qolini surkh gulpush megardonad. Poyai on shokharonda buda, bo muyakchakho pushida meboshad. Guli on kaloni lolamonand ast (behuda nest, ki dar baze nohiyakhoi jumhuriamon onro chun “guli lola” niz nom mebarand) va ranghoi gunogun dorad. Tukhmdon az mikdori ziyodi mevabargkho iborat ast. Gardgirak boshad, bevosita dar boloi gura nishasta- ast (yane tukhmdon sutuncha nadorad). Mevaguzaash sertukhmi bayzashakl ast.

Haminro boyad qayd kard, ki davrai rushdu numui aksari in rastaniho nihoyat kutoh meboshad. Onho dar yak muddati kutoh gul karda, tukhmu meva hosil mekunand. Sipas, az sabzish bozmonda, khushk meshavand. Dar bahori oyanda boshad, az tukhmi bazaminaftodai onho lolaarusakhoi ziyode sabzida mebaroyand.

Lolaarusak giyohi zahrnok ast. Dar tarkibi reshayu poya, bargu gul va guzai on alkaloidhoi gunogun mavjudand. Agar dar davrai gul- shukuftash onro chorvo istemol kunad, zahrolud meshavad. Inchu- nin, ba in oila chunin giyohhoi zahrnok, az qabili kuknorgiyoh, lo- lakazak va gayraho dokhil meshavand.

Kuknorgiyoh rastanihoi yak, du va yo bisyorsolaro darbar gi- rifta, poya va bargashon kabudu-sabz meboshad. Gulhoi kuknorgiyoh zardi baland yo zardu surkh buda, dar nugi navdaho paydo meshavand. Miqdori gardbargho bisyor buda, tukhmdon az du mevabarg tarkib yoftaast. Mevaash gilofaki jadvalmonandi rost yo kamonshakl ast. Hangomi kushodashavi az bolo ba poyon, yo az poyon ba bolo ba du palla taqsim meshavad.

Kuknorgiyoh dar pastkhamihoi kuhsor, sohili daryo, jarihoi zard- khok, zaminhoi bekorkhobida, dar archazori parokanda va dar bayni ziroatho meruyad. Kuknorgiyoh niz rastanii zahrnok buda, dar uzvhoi nashvi va mevaash alkaloidhoi gunogun dorad.

Dar bayni rastanihoi oilai kuknorgulho faqat kheli kuknori khobovar yo khoshkhosh hamchun rastanii mazru parvarish karda mesha- vad (dar maydonhoi makhsus judokardashuda va zeri nazorati kor- mandoni hukumati qarordoshta baroi ba dast ovardani doruhoi tabobati).

Odamone, ki ba parvarishi gayriqonunii kuknor (baroi ba dast ovardani mavodi nashamandy) mashguland, ba javobgarii jinoyati kashida meshavand.

Kuknor rastanii kamshokharonda buda, balandii poyaash to 150 sm merasad. Gulash kalon — kalon ast. Rangi gulbarghoyash bunafsh, gu- lobi, surkh va safed meshavad. Mevaguzaash kaloni sufta buda, bo muyakchaho pushida nashudaast. Tukhmash mayda va gunogunrang (safed, khokistarrang, siyohtob, jigari, zardcha va kabudtob) ast. Dar tarki- bi tukhmi kuknor 55% ravgan mavjud ast, ki onro dar sanoati qannodi, nonpazi, konservabarori, istehsoli rangu lak va gayraho istifoda mebarand.

Dar uzvhoi ruizaminii kuknor shirai safedi shirmonand (ki kho- siyati nashaovari dorad) dida meshavad, ki on az alkaloidho (qarib 20 khel) iborat ast. Az shira va alkaloidhoi kuknor doruhoi gunogu- ni tabobati istehsol mekunand va dar tahti nazorati qatii dukhtu- ron baroi tabobati kasaliho isTifoda mebarand.

  1. Kadom alomathoi khosi kuknorgulhoro medoned?
  2. Kuknorgulho dar kujoho vomekhurand?
  3. Namoyandahoi khudruy va mazrui kuknorgulhoro nombar kuned.
  4. Kuknorgulho chi ahamiyat dorand?
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