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Oilai khushadoron

Dar bayii oilahoi ba sinfi rastanihoi yakpalla mansubbuda, khushadorho kalontarin oila ba hisob rafta, taqriban 8000 namudro darbar megirand. Namoyandagoni oilai khushadorho dar tamomi arzu marzi kurai Zamin, khususan, dar dashtu margzorho, domanakuhu balandkuhho vase pahn shudaand. Aksari namudhoi dar mamlakati mo mavjudbudai in oila giyohhoi alafii yaksola va bisyorsolaand.

Reshai rastanihoi oilai khushadoron patakresha va poyaashon band-band payvast (serbugum) meshavand. Dar aksariyati khushadorho (gandum, jav, javdor, arzan) juzi baynibandhoi poya darunkholi ast va khudi bandho boshand, puri sokhtori boftahoyand. CHunin poyaro khaspoya menomand, dar baze namudi khushadorho (juvorimakka va nayshakar) juzi baynibandhoi poya niz chun khudi bandho az boftaho purand.

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Bargi khushadorho boriku daroz va ragroniash mutavozi buda, ostinaki daroz dorad. Bekhi (asosi) vaseshudayu naychamonandi bargro ostinak meguyand. Ostinak odatan poyaro bolotar az bande (baynbugume), ki barg az on jo sabzida baromadaast, faro giriftaast. Ostinaki bargi khushadorho hujayrahoi nozuki taqsimshavandaero, ki dar buni baynibandhoi poya joygirand, muhofizat mekunad. Az rui in khususiyatashon rastanihoi khushador az rastanihoi digar oilaho farq mekunand.

Dar on joe, ki pahnaki barg az ostinak dur (judo) meshavad, juzi pardamonand — zaboncha joy giriftaast. Zaboncha saddest (moneaest), ki obro ba bayni poyavu ostinak dokhil shudan nameguzorad.

Guli khushadorho dar khushaguli khushachadori yak, du yo bisyorguldor joygirand. Husha dar navbati khud se khel meshavad: khushai murakkab, jorubaki khushamonand va jorubak. Qarib dar hamai khushadorho dar bekhi har kadom khushacha dutoi pulakchai khushagi dida meshavad. Hushachai rastanikhoi gunoguni khushador yak yo yakchandto gul dorad. Dar har kadom guli aksari khushadorho 2 pulakchai gul, 2 gulparda, 3 gardbarg va 1 tukhmdon (ki on 2 gardgiraki pashmakdor dorad) mavjud ast.

Mevai khushadorho don ast. Don in mevai yaktukhma ba hisob raf- ta, dar on mevaparda va pusti tukhm bo ham chaspidaand. Endosper- mi tukhmi onho (taqriban 74 foizi tarkibi tukhmro tashkil mekunad) janinro ihota nakardaast, balki ba on az pahlu payvast buda, bevosita ba tukhmpallai yagona, ki siparcha meguyand, chaspidaast. Tukhmi rastanihoi khushadori kishtaro odatan don yo galladona meguyand.

Ahamiyati khushadoron dar hayoti inson nihoyat kalon va gunogun ast. Az jihati ahamiyati gizoi dar joi avval gandum, sholi, juvo- rimakka va javro meguzorand va durust ast, ki onhoro rastanihoi asosi va muhimi gizogii inson mehisoband.

Gandum ziroati khele qadima ast. Holo 20 namudi mazru va khudrui on malum ast. Dar navbati khud har yak namudi on az Navhoi gunogun iborat ast.

Dar miqyosi jahon asosan du namudi gandum — gandumi muloim va sakht kisht karda meshavand. Javdor. Dar har kadom khushachai javdor (khushagulash saraki murakkab) setoi gul hast, ki dutoash khub inkishof yoftaast. Gulhoi khushachai javdor dujinsa buda, tavassuti shamol gardolud meshavand. Doni javdor boriki daroz buda, ordi javdor  az safeda boy va rangash khiratob ast. Nonash sergizo va khushtam ast. Javdor niz ba misli gandum yake az galladonahoi asosii gizogi ba hisob meravad. Dar nohiyahoe, ki gandum hosili balandi dilkhoh doda nametavonad, javdor mekorand. Dar ziroatparvarii umumijahoni az rui miqyosi maydoni kishtash javdor dar joi shashum meboshad.

SHoli ziroati purqimat ast. Vayro dar mamlakathoi tropiki va subtropiki dar zaminhoi obi parvarish mekunand. SHoli ziroati yaksola buda, onro bahoron kisht mekunand. SHoli manbai boyi angishtob buda, qarib nisfi odamoni jahon onro istemol mekunand. Dar ayni zamon yakchand hazor navi sholi malum ast. SHoliro boz baroi istehsoli nishoista (krakhmal) istifoda mebarand. Az khaspoyai on kallapushu (kuloh), sabadcha mebofand va kogaz tayyor mekunand. Kohu pakholi (khaspoyai) sholi khuroki khubi chorvo meboshad.

Juvorimakka (makka) giyohi yaksolaest, ki to 2-5 m qad mekashad. Juvorimakkaro soli 1493 az Amerikai Janubi ba Avrupo ovarda budand. Poyai rosti juvorimakka darunkholi nabuda, serbugum (az 8 to 20 bugum) meboshad. Reshaash to chuqurii 2 m ba dokhili khok pahn meshavad. Az qismi poyonii poya re- shahoi bisyori purquvvati ilovagi mesabzand.

Barghoi darozu pahni (jadvalshakli) on ragronii mutavozi dorand. Juvorimakka rastanii yakkhonagi meboshad. YAne gulhoi modina va narina dar yak ras- taniand. Gulhoi modina khushaguli sutai murakkab ba vujud meovarand. Suta dar bagali bargho inki- shof meyobad. Rui sutaro gulpechakhoi sabz, ki shak- li tagyiryoftai barg meboshand, ihota kardaand. Guli modina gurai mudavvar dorad, ki on doroi su- tunchahoi abreshimshakl (“rishi” juvorimakka) bo gardgiraki duhissashuda (duparrashuda) meboshad. Gulhoi narina dar khushaguli sershokhi jorubak» ki dar nugi poya joygirand, sarjam omadaand. Hushaguli juvorimakka az khushachaho iboratand. Har kadom khushacha dutoi guli segardbargdor dorad. Gardi gul khele peshtar, to az sutai hamon rastani namudor shudani gardgirak, pukhta merasad. Binobar on, hodisai khudgardoludshavii guli juvorimakka qarib ruy namedihad. Gardi gul ba gardgiraki guli modina tavassuti shamol az rastanii hamshafat ovarda meshavad.

Juvorimakka ziroati rushnoidust va garmiparvard meboshad. Baroi bo ravshani khub tamin budani rastani, juvorimakkaro ba tavri radda — radda az hamdigar dur meshinonand. Masofai bayni raddaho yo qatorho boyad ba talabothoi agrotekhniki javobgu boshad. Juvorimakka rastanii khushkitobovar ba hisob ravad ham, lek ba namnoki (ob) ehtiyoji kalon dorad (baroi faoliyati hayotii har yak niholi juvorimakka dar yak shabonaruz kamash 1 l ob lozim ast). Inchunin, juvorimakka az khunuki (sarmo) sakht zarar mebinad. Dar harorati – 1°S sabzish va inkishofi on qat megardad.

Reshai juvorimakka ba dokhilshavii havo (oksigen) bisyor hasos meboshad. Az in ru, baroi khub dastras shudani havo pesh az guzaronidani kishti juvorimakka va dar davomi sabzishu inkishofi on khokro nagz narm kardan lozim ast.

Juvorimakka ziroati purqimati galladonagy, ozuqavi va khuro- ki sergizoi chorvo meboshad. Vay ashyoi khomi sanoati ast. Az doni juvorimakka ord, mu- qashshar, ravgan, nisho- istai istemoli, glyu- kozai kristalli va gayra istehsol meku- nand.

Rastanii digari fo- idanoki in oila jav meboshad. Jav khushaguli murakkabi sarak dorad. Dar har kadom khushacha yaktogi gul mavjud ast. Hangomi shukuftani gul khudgardoludshavi ba vuqu meoyad. Vale dar ruzhoi

garmi oftobi gulhoi jav, ba tufayli hasharot gardolud shuda metavonand. Jav ziroati zudrasu peshpazak ast. Az doni jav yarmahoi gunogun tayyor mekunand.

Suli az jav va javdor bo khushaguli jorubakash farq mekunad. Dar shokhchahoi khushaguli shokharondaash khushachaho joygirand, ki har kadomi onho 2-3-togi gul dorand. Guli suly khudgardoludshavanda meboshad. Suli agarchande rastanii khuroki chorvo boshad ham, lekin az doni vay talqon, yarma, muqashshar (gerkules) va digar mahsuloti purarzishi gizoi tayyor mekunand.

Nayshakar rastanii mintaqahoi tropiki meboshad. Az poyai on shakar istehsol mekunand.

Ba oilai khushadorho. ba juz ziro- athoi muhimi galladonagi, boz bisyor giyohhoi gunoguni khudruy, az qabili gandumak, arzanak, chimdk (kovil) va gayraho dokhiland.

1.  Alomathoi khosi sinfi rastanihoi yakpallaro yodovar shaved.

2.  Haspoya chist?

3.  Haspoya chi tavr sabzida qad mekashad?

4.  Alomathoi farqkunandai oilai khushadoronro nombar ku- ned.

5.   Kadom ziroathoi galladonaro medoned?

6.  Ziroathoi galladonaro baroi chi parvarish mekunand?

7.  Gardoludshavii juvorimakka chi tavr ba amal meoyad?

 

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