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Oilai chinorakho (chakamugiho)

Oilai chinorakho ziyoda az 2000 kheli rastanihoro darbar girifta, onho asosan dar mintaqahoi iqlimashon mutadil va khunuki kurai Zamin vase pahn shudaand. Dar Tojikiston 112 kheli onkho malumand. CHinorakho rastanihoi alafii yak yo bisyorsola buda, bazan dar shakli nimbuttavu butta va rastanihoi lianmonand (chubrost) vomekhurand. Reshaashon tirresha yo dar baze khelho patakresha buda, dar aksari digari khelhoyashon reshapoya meboshand.

Rasmi 17. Rastanihoi oilai chinorakho
Rasmi 17. Rastanihoi oilai chinorakho

Joygirshavii bargi chinorakho dar poya ba tavri navbati buda, pahnaki bargashon parmonand, panjashakl, parrador yo yaklukht meboshad.

Andoza (qutr), shakl, rang va sokhti guli rastanihoi ba oilai chinorakho taallukdoshta khele gunogunand. Gulpushashon sodda va duchanda ast. Mikdori gardbarghoyashon bisyor buda, mevaashon bar- gak yo chormagzmonandi kushodanashavanda ast. Dar baze khelhoyashon meva shakli guchummeva yo guzaro doshta, tukhmashon mayda meboshad.

CHinorakho beshtar dar joyhoi sernami domanakuhho to baland- kuhhoi khunuk vase pahn gardida, dar sohili daryovu juyho, margzor- ho va baze khelhoyashoi dar kanoru dokhili obhoi sustkharakat, kulkho va obpartovho nashunamo mekunand.

Dar bayni rastanihoi ba oilai chinorakho mansubbuda, ki okhi- ri fasli bahor gul mekunand, avlodi chinorak mamul ast.

CHinorak. Dar Tojikiston 40 kheli chinorak malum ast. Onho rastanihoi yaksola, bisyorsola buda, bargashon parmonand, panjashakl, parrador yo yaklukht ast. Gulashon az 5 yo 6-7 gulbargi rangash zard iborat ast.

Aksariyati khelhoi chinorak rastanikhoi zahrnok meboshand. Zero dar tarkibashon glikozidhoi zahrnok mavjud asg, ki agar ba pusti odam rasad, joyash suzish mekunad. Badi khushkonidan onho khosiyati zahrnokiashonro gum mekunand. Binobar on, baze khelhoi chinorak, ki dar sharoiti balandkuhho nashunamo mekunand, hamchun khuroki chorvo (buzu gusfandon) mavridi istifoda meboshand.

SHaqoiq (bodgul) rastanii bisyorsolai patakresha, reshapoya va yo lundareshador meboshad. Poyaash yak yo 2-3-to buda, to 35 sm qad mekashad. Isparak rastanii bisyorsolai alafi buda, az 10 to 150 sm qad mekashad. Dar Tojikiston 17 namudi khudrui isparak meruyad. Onho dar dashtu margzor, pistavu chelonzor, buttavu archazor va dar jan- galzorhoi darakhtonash pahnbarg dar balandii az 600 m to 5000 m az sathi bahr duchor meoyand. Bargashon panjashakl, rangi gulbargi gulashon kabud, bunafsh, gulobi, zard, safed meboshad. Gulkunia- shon az mohi may to sentyabr davom mekunad.kashad. Bargash panjashakl, gulash kalon—kaloni yaktogi yo dar gunchaguli chatrmonand joygirifta meboshad. Rangi gulbarghoyash surkh, zard, safedi gulobtob buda, mevaash bayzashakl (tukhmmonand) meboshad. Davrai gulshukufti shaqoik vobasta ba khelhoyash az mohi mart to mohi may davom mekunad. SHaqoiq rastanii rushnoidust buda, dar Tojikiston 9 kheli on vomekhurad. Dar Tojikiston besh- tar shaqoiki bukhoroi, boysuni, CHernyaeva va shaqoiqi yozida khelhoi az hama bisyor pahnshuda meboshand. SHaqoiq niz ba misli chinorak zahrnok meboshad.

Qarib hamai namudhoi isparak zahrnokand. Dar tibbi muosir baroi muolijai kasalihoi asab istifoda mebarand. Az gul va bargu poyai isparak rangi sabz va zard megirand.

Adrasmon niz giyohi khudrui bisyorsola ast. Buttaash ser- poyayu kamshokhronda buda, bo muyakchahoi ziyod ruypush gardi- daast. Barghoi qismi poyonii poya az inkishof boz monda (tanazzul yofta), ba pulakchahoi burrang mubaddal shudaand. Barghoi dar qismi bolotari poya joygirifta kalonu parmo- nandi bedumcha meboshand. Gu- lash az 10 – 15 gulbargi zard rang iborat buda, odatan dar mohhoi iyun-iyul shukufta, dar mohi iyul-avgust meva mebandad.

Adrasmon asosan dar bayni rastanihoi gunoguni dashti, toronzoru khuchzorho va kamolu

yuganzorhoi qatorkuhhoi Zarafshon, Turkiston, Hisoru Darvoz va Pyotri I dar balandihoi 2000 – 3200 m az sathi bahr vomekhurad.

Bo sababi zahrnok budani bargu poyaash onro chorvo istemol na- mekunad. Vay hamchun ashyoi khomi sanoati tib (onro az ogozi gulshukuft to pukhtani tukhmash jamovari mekunand) mamul ast. Adrasmon yake az muhimtarin davojoti kasalikhoi dil ba shumor meravad.

  1. Alomathoi khosi oilai chinorakhoro nombar kuned.
  2. CHinorakho dar chi khel sharoitho meruyand va dar kujoho vase pahn shudaand?
  3. Kadom namoyandagoni oilai chinorakhoro medoned?
  4. CHinorakho chi ahamiyat dorand?
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