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Oilai avranjiho

Ba oilai avranjiho 2500 kheli rastaniho dokhil meshavand. Onho dar mintaqahoi tropiki, subtropiki va marzhoi iqlimashon mutadil, alalkhusus, dar Amerikai Markazi va Janubi vase pahn gardidaand.

Rastanihoi oilai avranjiho asosan alafi, buttagi yo darakhti nachandon kalon meshavand. Hamai namoyandagoni oilai avranjiho sokhti ba hamdigar monandi gul va meva dorand.

Gulpushi rastanihoi in oila duchanda buda, kosachai gul az 5 kosabargi ba ham payvast, gultoj boshad, az 5 gulbargi ba ham payvast iborat buda, har yak gul 5 gardbarg va 1 tukhmdon dorad. Az in ru, formulai guli avranjiho chunin ast: K(5) T(5) G5 Mg

SHakli mevai rastanihoi oilai avranjiho gujummeva (anguri sagaki siyoh, pomidor, kartoshka) yo guza (guli patuny, bangidevona, tamoku, shaytonkosa) meboshad.

Kartoshka rastanii ba hama malum va purqimati oilai avranjiho ba hisob meravad, Vatani aslii on Amerikai Janubi ast. Dar on jo namudhoi khudrui kartoshka vomekhurad. Dar asri 16 kartoshkaro ba Avrupo mardumi ispani ovardaand. Avval kartoshkaro chun rastanii oroishi parvarish mekardand. Faqat dar okhirhoi asri 17 dar mamlakathoi Avrupo kartoshkaro baroi ba dast ovardani lundatanai istemolshavandaash parvarish mekardagi shudand. Paydoish va pahnshavii kartoshka dar Rossiya bo nomi Pyotri I (okhiri asri 17) sakht aloqamand ast. Dar Tojikiston boshad, kartoshkaro az miyonahoi asri 19 sar karda, parvarish mekunand.

Kartoshka
Rasmi 48. Kartoshka

Dar ayni vaqt bisyor navhoi purqimati kartoshka ba vujud ovarda shudaand, ki az rui hosilnoki va sifati lundanavdaashon bisyor bartari dorand.

Sokhti guli kartoshka ba guli digar rastanihoi avranji monand ast. Dar guli kartoshka shakhddon dida nameshavad. Binobar on, guli on tavassuti hasharotho gardolud nashuda, khud az khud gardolud meshavad. Az guli gardoludshuda gujummevai sabzrangi serobu sertukhm ba vujud meoyad. Az tukhmi kartoshka dar soli avvali parvarish lundatanai na on qadar kalon hosil meshavad. Parvarishi tukhmi kartoshkaro dar korhoi seleksioni baroi ruyondani navhoi navi kartoshka istifoda mebarand. Dar sharoiti istehsoloti kishovarzi boshad, kartoshkaro bo rohi nashvi az lundaash parvarish me- kunand.

Ba oilai avranjiho rastanihoi digar, az qabili pomidor, boyimjon, qalamfur va gayraho dokhil meshavand, ki doroi ahamiyati kaloni khuroki meboshand.

pomidor-boqilo

Vatani pomidor niz Amerikai Janubi meboshad. Parvarishi pomidor dar Tojikiston az solhoi 20-umi asri 20 shuru gardida, dar ayni zamon on yake az rastanihoi sabzavotii asosi ba hisob meravad. Mevai pomidor dar avval sabz buda, dar vaqti pukhtanash (vobasta ba navhoyash) rangi surkh, norinji, zard va gayraro ba khud megirad. SHakli mevaash niz gunogun buda, beshtar shakli mudavvar, darozruya, olumonand, nokmonand, qiranok va dilshaklro dorad.

Pomidorro dar shakli taru toza istemol mekunand. Az on har guna khurishho, pyure, pasta (khamira), sharbat tayyor mekunand va yo mekhushkonand va inchunin baroi khushtam kardani khurok istifoda mebarand.

Dar uzvhoi gunoguni rastanihoi ba oilai avranjiho taalluqdoshta moddahoi zahrnok mavjudand, ki metavonand odam va hayvonotro (dar natijai istemolu bo onho sarukor doshtan) zahrolud kunand. Ba in rastaniho shaytonkosa, bangidevona, anguri sagak (siyohavranj) va gayraho misol shuda metavonand. Dar natijai zahroludshavi salomatii inson kohish yofta, dardi sar va tapishi dil avj girifta, nafaskashi dushvor meshavad, asab sakht ba angezish (bakhurush) omada, gavharaki chashm vase megardad va dahon khushk meshavad. Az tarafi digar olimon dar natijai omuzish az in rastaniho doruhoi purqimmate ba dast ovardaand, ki baroi muo- lijai bisyor kasaliho davoi khubest.

Hususan, dar bargi tamoku moddahoi zahrnok khele ziyodand. Masalan, nikotini tarkibi bargi tamoku zahri halohil ba hisob meravad. Vay khunro zahrolud namuda, kori dil va uzvhoi nafaskashiro vayron mekunad. Kashidani chilimu nos baroi navrason nomatlub ast. Zero, onho khotirpareshonu zud-zud asaboni shuda, bo osoni ba

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