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Ogozi harakati umumihindustonii milliyu ozodikhohi

Ba rafti boloravii harakati milliyu ozodikhohi dar mamlakat rejimi mustamlikavi tavassuti jazodihiho javob megardonid. Soli 1878 noibi shoh Litton (1876-1880) dar borai siloh qonune barovard, ki az rui on ba hinduho sohibi silohi otashfishon budan man karda shud. Hudi hamon sol qonuni nihoyat berahmonae oid ba matbuot ham qabul gardid, ki muvofiqi on hamai madrakhoi ba zabonhoi hindi nashrshavanda az senzurai peshaki meguzashtand. Vale in choraho baroi rejimi mustamlikavii anglis natijai dilkhoh nadodand.

Soli 1880 dar Angliya Hizbi Liberalho ba sari qudrat omada, dar Hinduston zulmi mustamlikaviro kame sabuktar kunonid. Az on jumla, baze qonunhoi ziddikhalqiro bekor kard.

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Soli 1882 va minbad aksari azoi munisipalitethoi shahrhoi kalon az tarafi tabaqahoi boloii aholi intikhob karda meshudand. Dodgokhho poymol karda shudani hukuqhoi mardumi mahalliro az nazari najodi bartaraf kardand. Muboriza baroi halli hamin masala millatdustoni hindro vodor namud, ki safhoi khudro dar tamomi mamlakat musgakhkam kunand. Onho solhoi 1883 – 1884 baroi tashkili sozmoni umumihindi kushishi avvaline ba kharj dodand. Vale on vaqt in kor ba onho muyassar nashud.

Soli 1885 dar shahri Bombay anjumani yakum (muassisoni)-i Kongressi millii Hinduston barguzor gardid. YUm kotibi Generalii Kongress intikhob shud. Mustamlikadoron solhoi avval ba mavjudiyati KMH khayrkhohona nazar mekardand. Noibi shoh lord Dafferin (1884 – 1888) elon dosht, ki “Kongress az inqilob arzontar ast”. Doirahoi ozodandeshi metropoliy bar on aqida budand, ki hizbi ozodona amal mekardagi ba onho dar kori bo hukumatdoroni mustamlikavi hamdast kardani faoliyati neruhoi oppozitsioni yori khohad rasond.

Dar Kongress namoyandagoni qanoti ozodandeshi harakati milli hukmron budand. Barnomai onho dar sohai iqtisodi asosan -Masalahoi zerinro dar bar girifta bud: himoya va taraqqiyoti sanoati milli, kam kardani andozho, barpo kardani sistemai munazzami qarzi sarmoya. Kongress ba poymolkunii qadru qimati sanoati Hinduston va siyosati narkhguzorii mustamlikadoron etirozi qati bayon kard.

Badi tashkil yoftani KMH muboriza dar bayni guruhhoi gunoguni ijtimoii harakati milliyu ozodikhohi purzur meshavad. Dar miyonai solhoi 90-um ba Tilak va hamfikroni u muyasar meshavad, ki dar Kongress aksariyatro ba tarafi khud kashand.

Dar mamlakat bo tashabbusi Kongress va makhsusan Tilak chorabinihoi gunoguni milli guzaronida meshudand. Baroi havasmandkunii sanoati millii Hinduston konferensiyai sanoati va namoishgohho tashkil karda meshudand. Soli 1895 ba sharafi Hudo Ganesha va qakhramoni maratkhho SHivami idhoi ommavi guzaronida shudand, ki onho ba chorabinihoi tabligi siyosii KMH tabdil yoftand. CHunin chorabiniho dar Bangola niz doir gardidand. Hukumati mustamlikavi az khatari in chorabiniho ba tashvish omada, soli 1897 Tilakro ba muhlati 18 moh badarga kard.

Solhoi 80-um dar muqobili millatdustii burjuazii hindui sozmonhoi maorifparvarii islomi niz ba faoliyat shuru kardand. Sozmonhoi islomi dar muborizai milli ozodikhohonai khalqhoi Hnnduston unsuri farqiyati hindu va musulmonro vorid sokhtand. Peshvoi harakati islomii Hnnduston Sayid Akhmadkhon (1817 -1898) bud. U dar bayni musulmonon sozmoni maorifparvari tashkil kard va dar Aligarkh kollej kushod. Sayid Akhmadkhon jonibdori rejimi mustamlikadorii Angliya bud. Ba fikri u tanho Angliya metavonad huquqi musulmonhoi Hindustonro himoya kunad. Gunogunii barnomai faoliyat dar kori muborizai milliyu ozodikhohii Hinduston oqibat in du sozmonro ziddi hamdigar gardonid.

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