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Ogozi harakati milliyu ozodikhohi dar Hinduston

Angliya Hindustonro dar parokandagi nigoh medosht. Dar in jo qarib 600 knyaz mavjud bud va judoii onhoro metropoliya muhofizat mekard. In holat imkoniyat namedod, ki millathoi Hinduston khub tashakkul yoband. Halqiyathoi dar guzashta peshqadam, masalan, andhra, malayali va gayra qalamravi umumii khudro nadoshtand. Zaminhoi ajdodii onho ba knyazihoi alohila, ki “muzofothoi Britani” nom doshtand, taqsim karda shuda budand. Boqimondahoi sokhti kastagi va hokimiyati dini vahdati siyosii khalqho va tashakkuli shuuri millii onhoro mushkil megardondand. Tashakkuli millii bangolaviho, maratkhho, gujarotiho, tamilho va baze khalqiyathoi digape, ki dar navohii az jihati iqtisodi taraqqikardai mamlakat sokin budand, teztar ba amal meomad.

Purzurshavii istismori mustamlikavi dar sharoiti guzarish ba imperializm vazifai muboriza bar ziddi onro ba maddi avval guzosht. Ziyoiyoni Hinduston kamshumor boshand ham, dar bayni khalq tasiri kalon doshtand. Onho hamchun ideologi harakati milliyu ozodikhohii navogozyoftai Hinduston baromad mekardand.

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Solhoi 70-um dar Bangola, Bombay va baze shahru muzofothoi az jihati iqtisodi taraqqikarda sozmonhoi gunoguni jamiyatiyu siyosii ziddianglisi ba vujud meomadand. Dar Bangola “Sozmoni Hindustoni Britaniya” va “Sozmoni Britaniya” tavlid yoftand. In sozmonho ziddi harakati ommavii milliyu ozodikhohi buda, tanho baroi ishgoli vazifahoi davlati, vase kardani huquqhoi mardumi Hinduston va bar ziddi az nazari najodi poymolkunii huquqhoi mardumi mahalli muboriza meburdandu bas.

Soli 1370 dar Makharad arboboni ozodikhohii muadili harakati milli sozmoni “Puni Sarvachanik sabha”-ro tashkil kardand. Ba vujud omadani harakati “svadeshi” (manoyash – “istehsologi khudi”) Bahri bunyodi istehsoloti vatani ba hamin sozmon aloqamand bud.

Mutaassifona, taraqqiyoti sarmoyadori viloyati shimoli va shimolu garbii mamlakatro faro nagirift. Binoan, harakati millii dar in joyho bavuchudomada shakli maorifparvari va mohiyati dini dosht.

Dar solhoi 70-um sozmonhoi kuhna va navi diniyu islohotkhohi va mazhabii hinduiya, islomi va sikkhi faoliyati khudro vase kardand. Bazei onho talimoti diiiro ba sharoiti hamonvaqtai Hinduston muvofiq karda, dar kori boloravii harakati milliyu ozodikhohi sahm meguzoshtand.

SHurishhoi dar solhoi 70-um baamalomada az boloravii harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalqhoi Hinduston shahodat medihand. SHurishi solhoi 1859 -1862 bo nomi “SHurishi indigo” dar Bangolai SHarqi soli 1872 dar Panjob, soli 1375 dar knyazii Barod, shurishi maratkhho dar Pun va Ahmadnagar az qabili in shurishho meboshand.

Solhoi 1876- 1878 harakati ozodikhohi dar muzofoti Bombay khele purzur bud. Solhoi 1870-1880 harakati kishovarzon dar Makharashtra vusat meyobad. In harakat inqilobchii demokrat Vasudeva Balvante Pkhadke (1845 1883)-ro tayyor kard. U az oilai barahman buda, malumoti khub dosht. Az sanskrit bokhabar bud va zaboni anglisiro medonist. Pkhadke hamchun vatanparvar mustamlikadoronro bad medid. Avval u tashviqoti ziddianglisiro dar bayni javononi maratkhho meburd. Bad dar nazdi khud va hamaqidahoyash vazifa guzosht, ki tavassuti shurish dar Hinduston rejimi mustamlikavii Britaniyaro barham mezanand. Soli 1879 Pkhadke dastai musallahi khudro tashkil karda, bo sarvaroni dehqononi shurishbardoshta robita barqaror namud. Bahori soli 1879 ba Pkhadke muyassar shud, ki yakchand marotiba bar ziddi mustamlikadoron amaliyoti harbii bobaror kunad. Bo vujudi in to miyonahoi tobistoni hamon sol ba mamuriyati mustamlikavi muyassar meshavad, ki ba dastahoi Pkhadke shikast dihad. Hudi Pkhadke ba dast aftid. Uro sudi Pun ba badargai yakumra mahkum kard.

Gayr az in boz dahho shurishhoi digarro misol ovardan mumkin ast. Sarfi nazar az in onho hanuz mohiyati umumihindi nadoshtand. Harakati mutashakkili umumimillii ozodikhohii khalqhoi Hinduston dar pesh bud.

Dar nimai duyumn asri XIX – avvali asri XX dar Hindustan asosan du markazi kalontarini harakati milliyu ozodikhohi ba vujud meoyad Makharashtra va Bangola. Badi faoliyati inqilobiyu demokratii Pkhadke dar Makharashtra harakati millii radikalii chap bo sardorii inqilobchii buzurgi Hinduston Bad Gangadhar Tilak (1856 – 1920) ogoz yoft. Tilak az oilai maratkhhoi barahman buda, hanuz az ovoni javoni ananahoi ozodikhohii maratkhhoro qabul mekunad. Soli 1880 bo jiddu jahdi Tilak dar Pun baroi farzandoni hamai tabaqahoi aholi dastras maktabi navi anglisi kushoda meshavad. Soli digar u ba chopi ruznomai “SHer” ba zaboni maratkhi va “Makhratta” ba zaboni anglisi shuru mekunad. Tavassuti maktab, nashriyaho va vositahoi digar Tilak va hamfikroni u hamchun muhofizatgaroni manfiathoi burjuaziyai milli baromad mekardand. Tilak shakli asosii muborizaro bar ziddi mustamlikadoron – boykot kardani molhoi anglisi mehisobid.

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