Home / Gunogun / Ogozi jangi Angliyavu Afgoniston

Ogozi jangi Angliyavu Afgoniston

Dar ishgol kardani Afgoniston bo Angliya Rusiya raqobat mekard. Soli 1873 hukumati Rusiya Angliyaro bovar kunonid, ki “Afgoniston mintaqai manfiathoi khud nameshumorad”. Badi in Angliya sipohi khudro ba nazdikii sarhadi Afgonistonu Hindu ovarda jo ba jo kard va ba jangi ziddi Afgoniston omodagi girift. Az in kor SHeralikhon ba tashvish aftoda, safironi khudro ba Rusiya firistod, to ki on ba Angliya tasir paconad.  Gayr az in Rusiya dastai nachandon kaloni askaroni khudro ba sarhadi Afgoniston ravon kard. Bahori soli 1878 namoyandahoi diplomatii Rusiya bo sardorii Stoletov ba Kobul omadand. Onhoro dar in jo bo tantana peshvoz giriftand. Vale in vakht dar Kongressi baynalkhalqii Berlin (s. 1878) dar masalai siyosat bayni Rusiya va Angliya husni tafohum ba dast omad. Baroi hamin loihai Sozishnoiai Rusiyayu Afgoniston, ki Stoletov ba Peterburg ovarda bud, tasdiq nashud. Az tarafi digar Angliya az SHeralikhon talab kard, ki namoyandai onro bo sardorii N. CHemberlen (uro dastai harbiyon hamrohi mekardand) qabul namoyad. Dar nazdi diplomati anglis vazifae meistod, ki mutobiqi on Afgoniston boyad munosibathoi khudro bo Rusiya qat kunad va ba kushodani namoyandagii anglisi dar Kobul, Balkh va Hirot ijozat bidihad. Vale firistodagoni Angliya ba mamlakat roh doda nashudand. Guftushunidi amir bo Stoletov va rad karda shudani qabuli namoyandagoni anglisi ba Angliya baroi cap kardani jangi ziddi Afgoniston bahona shud. Nakhustvazir lord Bikonsfild dar palatai (majlisi) jamoahoi parlamenti Angliya baromad karda, ibroz dosht, ka sarhadi shimolu garbi Hinduston “tasodufi va gayriilmi” ast. Dar barobari in ba Afgoniston talabi qati firistoda shud, ki hamai talabhoi Angliya betakhir qone gardonida shavand. Ba javobi talab intizor nashuda, mohi noyabri soli 1878 artishi 35-hazornafarai Britaniya ba Afgoniston zada daromad.

battle_in_afghanistan

Sarhadchiyoni afgon avvalin shuda bo artishi anglisi dar guzargohi Haybar vokhurdand. Ba on general Broun rohbari mekard. Garnizoni qalai Ali Masjid ziddi anglisho muqobiliyati sakht nishon doda boshad ham, majbur shud, ki aqibnishini kunad. Dar miyonahoi mohi yanvari soli 1879 Broun Jalolobodro ishgol kard. Badi in artishi britani ba daruni mamlakat vorid gardid. Juzu tomhoi artishi Afgoniston alayhi dushman ba tavri boyadu shoyad muqovimat karda natavonistand. Anglisho az ziddiyathoi dokhili niz istifoda burda, dar Kobul va viloyathoi alohidai Afgoniston mukholifatho tashkil kardand. In holat SHeralikhonro majbur namud, ki dar Kobul ba joi khud pisarash YAkubkhonro monda, ba Mazori SHarif firor kunad. SHeralikhon ba Mazori SHarif omadan zamon bemor shuda, 20 fevrali soli 1879 vafot mekunad. Amiri javon YAkubhoi nisbat ba Angliya husni tavajjuh dosht. U tavassuti noma du marotiba ba hukumati Angliya murojiat kard, ki tajovuzi ziddi Afgonistonro bas kunad. Safiri Rusiya dar London SHuvalov niz ba hukumati Angliya chandin nomai etirozi ravon kard. Vale in nomaho be javob mondand.

YAqubkhon ba sipohiyonash farmud, ki muqobiliyatro bo anglisho bas kunand. U 26 mayi soli 1879 dar mahallai Gandumak bo hamrohii namoyandai masuli hukumati anglohindi Lui Kavanyari ba zeri Sozishnomai baroi Afgoniston asoratovar imzo guzosht. Az rui on Afgoniston minbad bo davlathoi khoriji mustaqilona robita kardanro az dast dod. Nohiyahoi Sibi, Pishmn va Kurram tahti idorai anglisho daromadand va nazorag ba guzargohho az boloi agbaho niz ba ikhtiyori anglisho guzasht. Amiri Afgoniston aknun ba rezidenti dar Kobulbudai anglisi itoat mekard.

Vale khalqi Afgoniston ba taqdir tan nadod. Dar mamlakat changi chiriki vusat yoft. Dastahoi ziyodi fidoiyon ba sui poytakhti mamlakat – Kobul meomadand. Soli 1879 dar Kobul askarho va fidoiyon shurish bardoshtand. Dar in jo onho binoi namoyandagii Angliyaro ba dast darovarda, anglishoi dar on budaro qatl kardand. YAqubkhon ba joi on, ki ba harakati muqovimati khalq bar ziddi istidogaroni anglis rohbari kunad, baraks ba tobeoni khud farmud, ki farmonhoi namoyandagii anglisiro bechunu charo ijro kunand.

Hukumagi Angliya qaror dod, ki dar zeri rohbarii general Roberts ba Afgoniston dastan jazodihandagonro ravon kunad. Ba in dasta suporish doda shuda bud, ki Kobulro ishgol namuda, elon kunad, ki artishi anglisi az Afgoniston baromada nameravad. Roberts vada dod, ki har kase dar in kor ba anglisho dasti yori daroz kunad, dasttirii uro qadr khohem kard. YAkubkhon ba peshvozi Roberts baromada, sadoqati khudro ba anglisho nishon dod.

Bar khilofi khiyonati YAkubkhon va baze hokimoni mahalho ’ dastahoi chiriki va dehqonon bar ziddi jazodihandagoni anglis muqobiliyati sakht nishon medodand. Artishi amiri sobiq SHeralikhon, ki ba on Muhammadkhon rohbari mekard, niz omodii muboriza bar ziddi anglisho bud. U sarbozonashro ba nazdikii Kobul ovard. Badi janghoi shadid ba anglisho muyassar shud, ki ba fidoiyoni khele bad musallah shikast dihand. Artishi shikastkhurdai afgonho ba jonibi Gazna aqib nishast. Ba sarbozoni Roberts muyassar shud, ki Bolohisorro ishgol namuda, ba shahri Kobul daroyand. Dar in shahr hokimiyat ba dasti anglisho guzasht. Istilogaron YAqubkhonro baroi bar ziddi shurishgaron muqovimat nishon doda natavonistan az takhtu toj mahrum namuda, ba Hinduston badarga kardand.

Markazi muborizai ozodikhohonai ziddianglisi aknun viloyati Gazna shud. Az tamomi gushayu kanori mamlakat ba in jo dastahoi fidoiyon jam meomadand. YAke az dastahoi purquvvattarini fidoiyon bo sardorii Muhammadjonkhoni Vardak (sobiq afsari qismi artillerii amir SHeralikhon) bud. Ba u qabilai vardak hamroh shud. Muhammadjonkhon tavonist, ki baze juzu tomhoi artishi muntazami az Turkistoni Afgoniston omadaro ham ba artishi khud muttahid kunad. Alayhi anglisho ulamoi islomi, az on jumla Dinmuhammad, tabligot meburdand. Dinmuhammadro avvalin shuda qabilahoi Gilzay va Mumand dastgiri kardand.

Okhirhoi soli 1874 dastahoi askaroni vatandust az Gazna, Kuhiston va nohiyayu viloyathoi digar az nav ba sui Kobul harakat kardand. Roberts ba muqobili onho sipohiyoni khudro ravon kard. Dar nazdikii Kobul muhoribahoi  shadid ba amal omadand. Qarib bud, ki anglisho shikast khurand. In vaqt artishi anglisho az Hinduston ba in jo ba yorii sarbozoni Robertsi shikastkhurdaistoda omadand va Muhammadjonkhon majbur shud, ki bo hamrohii artishash Kobulro tark kunad.

Hamin tariq, Kobul va Qandahor ba dasti anglisho guzashtand. Onho tavonistand, ki bahori soli 1880 Gaznaro ham ba dast darorand va bad bar ziddi shurishgaron ekspeditsiyai kaloni jazodihi tashkil namoyand. Roberts az Angliya suporishi makhfi girift, ki judoikhohoni mahalliro dastgiri va muhofizat kunad, to ki Afgoniston az viloyathoi alohidai ba Angliya tobe iborat boshad. Dar barobari in anglisho baroi Afgoniston hokimero justuju mekardand, ki vazro dar markaz ba etidol ovarda tavonad.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

1362470141_pero

Adabiyoti realisti

Adiboni realistii nimai duyumi asri XIX – avvali asri XX kambudihoi jomearo notarsona fosh mekardand. …