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Ogozi barham khurdani imperiyai Usmoniyon

Javonturkho to soli 1918 dar sari hokimiyat budand. Onho Turkiyaro bo rohi sarmoyadori va demokratiyai Garb burdand, vale khalqhoi gayriturki imperiyaro az zeri yugi istismori mustamlikavi ozod nakardand, harchand kabl az inqilob dar in bora harf mezadand.

Sistemai siyosie, ki javonturkho tashkil namudand, imkoniyat dod, ki sozmonhoi chamiyatiyu siyosi tashkil yoband. Hizbi Sotsialistii Usmoniyon (1910) va Hizbi Hurriyat va Vahdat (1911) az jumlai onhost. Az in peshtar Hizbi Ittihod va Taraqqi tashkil yofta bud. Soli 1912 ba hizbi vahdatchiyon muyassar gardid, ki parlamentro parokanda sokhta, hukumatero ba sari hokimiyat biyorand, ki nisbat ba Hizbi Ittihod va Taraqqii Turkiya dar oppozitsiya bud. Javonturkho az tarsi on ki hokimiyat az dastashon naravad, mohi yanvari soli 1913 tabadduloti davlati ba amal barovardand. Guruhi afsarho bo sardorii ishtirokchii inqilobi soli 1908 Anvarbey qarorgohi hukumatro ihota karda, raqiboni javonturkhoro torumor kardand. Badi tabaddulot javonturkho dar mamlakat rejimi diktatoriro az nav barqaror kardand, ki on az istibdodi Abdulhamid hej farqe nadosht.

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Dar ogozi asri XX davlathoi abarqudrati Evropa siyosati khorijii khudro ba mustamlikahoi balkanii imperiyai Turkiya ravon kardand. Onho niyat doshtand, ki mustamlikahoi imperiyai Usmoniyonro dar bayni khud taqsim kunand. Ba in muboriza Italiya niz hamroh shud. Tiramohi soli 1911 bo rozigii davlathoi abarqudrat Italiya baroi zabti du muzofoti afrikavii Turkiya – Tripolitaniya va Kirenaika bar ziddi imperiyai Usmoniyon ba jang daromad. Dar in jang turkho shikast khurdand. Muvofiqi Sozishnomai sulhi Ushi-Lozanna in du muzofot ba nomi Libiya ba Italiya guzashtand.

Jangi Tripolitaniya nishon dod, ki imperiyai Usmoniyon khele zaif gardidaast. In holat ba muqobili Turkiya ba jang daromadani ittifoqi davlathoi balkanii Bulgoriya, Serbiya, YUnon va CHernogoriyaro tezond. In jang, ki Jangi yakumi Balkan nom giriftaast, mohi oktyabri soli 1912 ogoz yofta, to bahori soli 1913 davom kardaast. Dar on Turkiya shikast khurd. Muvofiqi Sozishnomai sulhi 30 mayi soli 1913 dar London ba imzorasida mustamlikahoi evropaii Turkiya az qalamravi girdu atrofi Istambul va mintaqai gulugohhoi nazdikii onho iborat shud. Albaniya knyazii mustaqil elon gardid.

Mukholifati ittifoqchiyon dar masalai taqsimoti muzofothoe, ki az Turkiya ba dast darovarda budand, sababgori Jangi duyumi Balkan (mohhon iyun – avgusti soli1913) shud. Dar Jangi duyumi Balkan Bulgoriya shikast khurd. Muvofiqi Sozishnomai sulhi Bukharest Turkiya Frakiyai SHarqi va Edirnro pas bargardonid.

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