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Obsabzhoi sabzi bisyorhujayrai rishtamonand (ulotriks, spirogira)

Dar obhoi shirini sustjarayoni juyho, daryoho, havzho mo beshtar ba anbuhi rishtahoi abreshimmonandi sabzi ravshan duchor meshavem, ki onho az tarafi asosashon ba yagon jismhoi sakhti zeriobi (sang, kundahoi darakhton va gayraho) chaspida, tarafi nugiashon dar ob ozod javlon mezanand. In obsabzi bisyorhujayragi ulotriks nom doshta, az silsilai hujayrahoi kutohi pasi hamdigar joygirbuda iborat ast. Dar mahalho onro “jomai” qurboqqa niz menomand.

bisyorhujayraDar sitoplazmai hujayrahoi kutohi ulotriksro tashkildihanda yadro va khromotofori shaklash ba halqai kushod monand mavjud ast. Hujayrae, ki ulotriksi rishtamonand bo on ba ashyoi zeriobi mechaspad, berang buda, shaklash fonamonand ast. Sabzishi rishtai ulotriks, odatan, dar natijai taqsimshavii hujayrai nugii ozodi rishta ba amal meoyad.

Gizogirii ulotriks ba khlamidomonada monand buda, afzoishash bo rohi gayrijinsi va jinsi meguzarad. Dar sharoiti musoid har kadom hujayrai in obsabz (ba juz khujayrai berangi fonamonand) 3-4 zoosporai chorqamchinakdori serharakatro ba vujud meovarad. Zoosporahoi az hujayrai modari ozodshuda dar ob shino karda, kamchinakashonro mepartoyand va ba yagon jismi zeriobi chaspida ba taqsimshavi shuru mekunand. Pas az chand muddat obsabzi navi rishtamonand faoliyati hayotiashro idoma medihad.

Dar sharoiti gayrimusoidi zindagi ulotriks ba tufayli afzoishi jinsi inkishof meyobad. Dar baze hujayrahoi obsabz gametahoi (hujayrahoi jinsi) nihoyat khurdu qamchinakdori serharakat ba vujud omada, sipas az khujayrai modari judo meshavand. Har kadomi onho bo hamdigar juft-juft omezish yofta, hujayrai bordor ast.

Zigota bo jildi gafs pushida buda, metavonad to faroham omadani sharoiti musoid muddati daroz dar chunin holati oromi qaror doshta boshad. Dar sharoiti musoid zigota ba chor hujayra-spora taqsim meshavad. Har yake az on sporaho ba ashyoi qari ob chaspida, inkishof meyoband va ba obsabzi rishtamonandi nav — ulotriks tabdil meyoband.

Spirogira – obsabzi bisyorhujayrai rishtamonand ast. Hujayrahoi on dar rishta silsilavor payvast shuda, yak qatorro tashkil medihand. Spirogiraro az rui makhsusiyati shakli khromotoforash bo osoni shinokhtan mumkin ast. Hromotofori on az yak yo yakchand tasmae, ki ba tavri spirali dar nazdikii devori sitoplazma joygir buda, bo in minvol guyo hujayraro miyonbandi mekunad, iborat ast. Dar hujayrai spirogira yadroi kalon bo yadrochaash qismi ziyodi Hujayraro ishgol mekunad Jildi hujayra az berun luobi buda, lag- jonak ast.

Afzoishi spirogira asosan bo rohi nashvi (judoshavii yak qismi tallom) va jinsi surat megirad.

Hangomi afzoishi jinsi du rishtai spirogira ba tavri mutavozi pahlui hamdigar joy megirand. Dar bayni hujayrahoi ru ba rui yakdigar istodai har du rishta ba jonibi yakdigar baromadhoi makhsus inkishof meyoband. Nughoi ba ham vaslgardidai in baromadho luobi shuda, bayni du rishta kuprukcha paydo meshavad, ki on shakli nordboncharo megirad. Ba tufayli naychai hosilshuda dokhiloti (mahsuloti) zindai yak hujayra ba hujayrai hamshafatash naql karda meshavad. Dar natija zigota (hujayrai bordorshuda) khosil meshavad. Bad az bartaraf gardidani sharoiti nomusoid dar zigota chor hujayrai nav paydo meshavad. Az in hujayraho setoash iobud shuda, tanho yaktoash sabzida, boisi nashunamoi spirogirai javon megardad.

  1. Ulotriks va spirogira dar kujo mesabzand?
  2. Sokhti ulotriks chi guna ast?
  3. Spirogira az ulotriks bo chi farq mekunad?
  4. Ulotriks va spirogira chi tavr gizo megirand?
  5. Ulotriks chi khel sabzish mekunad?
  6. Ulotriks va spirogira bo kadom roh afzoish mekunand?
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