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Obsabzhoi sabzi yakhujayra (khlamidomonada va khlorella)

Obsabzho guruhi kaloni rastanihoi darajai pastro tashkil mekunand. CHunki, onho resha, poya va bargi haqiqi nadorand. Onhoro rastanihoi tallomi menomand. Obsabzho organizmhoi yakhujayragi, bisyorhujayragi va tudazindagikunandaro darbar megirand. Aksariyati onho dar muhiti ob sukunat doshta, beshtar dar obhoi shuri bahru uqyonusho, obhoi shirini daryoho, obanborho, havzho va hatto dar khokhoi sernam va pustlokhi darakhton vomekhurand. Obsabzho taqriban 30 hazor namud doshta, namoyandagoni qadimtarini olami nabotot ba hisob meravand. Sinnu soli onho ba milliard sol merasad.

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Obsabzhoi sabzi yakhujayra yake az guruhhoi gunogunshakli obsabzho ba hisob rafta, ziyoda az panj hazor namudro darbar megirand. Onho bo sababi dar hujayraashon mavjud budani pigmenti khlorofill doroi rangi sabzi baland meboshand.

Saravval, shinosoiro az obsabzhoi sabzi yakhujayra ogoz mekunem. Andozai obsabzhoi sabzi yakhujayra khele khurd buda, onhoro faqat ba tufayli asbobhoi kalonkunanda (mikroskop) didan imkonpazir megardad. Onho beshtar dar obhoi kul, daryo, khokhoi sernam va pustlokhi darakhton vomekhurand. Dar fasli bahor yo tobiston sathi boloii obi oromi kul yo havzro qabati zumurradrang faro megirad. Guyo ob “shukufta” boshad.

Dar asl boshad, in holat ba inkishofi boavji obsabzhoi sershumori yakhujayra vobasta meboshad. Agar qatrae az in ob girifta, dar zeri mikroskop nigoh kunem, dar bayni digar obsabzhoi yakhujayra obsabzi khele serharakat — khlamidomonadaro mebinem. Tarjumai “khlamidomonada” az zaboni yunoni chunin ast: mavjudoti soddatarine, ki onro “libos — lifofa” pushidaast. Az rui sokhti beruniash khlamidomonada shakli gird, tukhmshakl yo nokmonandro dorad. Dar nugi boriki peshi hujayra du qamchinaki barobarandoza joy giriftaast, ki tavassuti on khlamidomonada dar ob harakat mekunad.

Az berun khlamidomonadaro jildi shaffof, ki dar dokhili on sioplazma, yadro va khromotofori kaloni kosamonand joygirand, pushondaast. Hromotofor az kalimai yunoni girifta shuda, manoyash rangrez yo rangdihanda meboshad. Rangi khromotofor sabz ast, chunki khlorofill dorad. Rangi sabzi hujayra ba on vobasta ast.

Dar qismi peshi hujayra “chashmakchai” surkhi ravshanihassos va du vakuolai khurdi kashishkhuranda joygir meboshad. Ba tufayli “chashmakchai” ravshanihassos khlamidomonada ravshaniro qabul karda, bo yorii qamchinakhoyash ba jonibi ravshani harakat mekunad. Vakuolahoi kashishkhuranda boshand, baroi az khujayra berun kardani obi barziyod khizmat mekunand.

Hlamidomonada moddahoi madani va gazi karbonatro az muhiti obi tavassuti jildash mejabbad. Dar ravandi fotosintez bo ishtiroki ravshanii oftob dar khromotofori on moddai organiki  qand (va az on ohar) hosil shuda, oksigen khorij meshavad.

Hlamidomonada ba juz moddahoi organikie, ki hangomi fotosintez hosil meshavand, inchunin metavonad moddahoi organikii dar ob halshudaro az muhiti zistash mavridi istifoda qaror dihad. In khususiyati khlamidomonadaro ba nazar girifta, onro dar qatori digar obsabzhoi sabzi yakhujayragi dar inshoothoi obsof kunanda istifoda mebarand. Hususan, chunin qobiliyati khlamidomonada baroi obro az zahrhoi organiky toza kardan doroi ahami- yati kalon ast.

Afzoishi khlamidomonada bo rohi jinsi va gayrijinsi dar fasli tobiston, hangomi musoid budani sharoiti zist, ba amal meoyad. Dar vaqti afzoishi gayrijinsi, ki dar sharoiti musoidi tobiston ba vuqu meoyad, khlamidomonada az harakat bozmonda, qamchinakashro gum mekunad. Sipas, dokhiloti on (yadro, sitoplazma) ba chor qism taqsim shuda, har yak juzi hosilshuda qamchinak hosil mekunad va bo lifofai makhsus pushida megardad. Hamin tavr, dar dokhili hujayrai modari  hujayra — sporai qamchinakdore, ki onro zoospora menomand, hosil meshavad. Pas az daridani jildi hujayrai modari zoosporaho ba berun baromada, shino karda, mustaqilona kalon shuda, andozai hujayrai modariro megirand.

Hangomi afzoishi jinsi, ki odatan dar sharoiti nomusoidi zist (khunukshavi, khushk shudani obanbor) ruy medihad, dar hujayrai modarii khlamidomonada gametahoi duqamchinakdor (hujayrahoi jinsi) hosil meshavand. Miadori gametahoi paydoshuda nisbati zoosporaho khele ziyod (az 16 to 64 adad) buda, andozaashon khele khurd meboshad. Onho az lifofai hujayrai modari berun baromada, bo gametahoi digari khlamidomonada juft-juft gardida, dar natija zigotaro (gametahoi bordorshudaro) ba vujud meovarand. Zigota bo jildi gafs ihota gardidaast. Sipas vaqte, ki sharoiti baso musoid faro rasad, zigota taqsim shuda, chorto khlamidomonadaro ba vujud meovarad.

Hlorella — obsabzi sabzi yakhujayragii andozaash mikroskopi buda, na tanho dar ob, inchunin dar khokhoi sernam, tanai darakhton vomekhurad.

Hujayrai kurashakli khlorella az berun bo jild pushida buda, dar dokhilash sitoplazma, yadro va khromotofori kalon, ki ba on rangi sabz medihad, dorad. Hlorella faqat bo rohi gayrijinsi afzoish mekunad. Ravandi fotosintez dar in obsabz bagoyat bosurat guzashta, dar natija bo mivdori ziyod moddai organiki hosil shuda, gazi oksigen ba berun khorij karda meshavad. Az in ru, khlorellaro dar kishtihoi kay- honi va zeriobi baroi serok- sigen gardonidani havo va dar sohai kishovarzi boshad, ba- roi ba dast ovardani khuroki bosifati chorvo istifoda mebarand.

  1. Hlamidomonada chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Hlamidomonada dar kujo vomekhurad va chi tavr gizo megirad?
  3. Afzoishi gayrijinsii khlamidomonada chi tavr ruy medihad?
  4. Dar kadom sharoit khlamidomonada ba tavri jinsi afzoish mekunad?
  5. Hlamidomonada az khlorella bo kadom alomathoyash farq mekunad?
  6. Hlorellaro dar kujo va bo kadom maqsad istifoda mebarand?
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