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Obsabzhoi bahri (obsabzhoi bur va surkh)

Obsabzhoi bur va surkh asosan sokinoni obhoi shuri bahru uqyonusho ba hisob meravand. Onho dar sharoithoi baso musoid tez afzuda, dar zeri ob anbuhi azimi obsabzhoro ba vujud meorand, ki bahrnavardon onro “saddi zinda” menomand. In anbuhi azimi obsabzho surati harakati naqliyoti obiro khalaldor mekunad va ba furudoii gidrosamolyotho mone shuda metavonad.

obsabzi-bahriHamai obsabzhoi bur va surkh organizmhoi balandtashakkuli bisyorhujayragii murakkab meboshand. Dar bayni obsabzhoi surkh bazan namudhoi shakli yakhujayragidoshta vomekhurand. Andozai onho az yak chand millimetr to yakchand metr ast. Aksariyati namoyandagoni obsabzkhoi bur va surkh bisyorsola meboshand. In obsabzho nomashonro az rui rangi doshtaashon giriftaand. Onho doroi rangi bur, siyoh va surkh meboshand.

Dar uqyonushoi YAkhbastai SHimoli, Orom obsabzi nisbatan azimjussa — laminariya, karami bahri mesabzad. Laminariyai barkamol taqriban az 0,5 to 6 m va dar baze holatho to 20 m darozi dorad. Laminariyai az hama kalonandoza to 50 m qad mekashad. Laminariya tavassuti rizoidi (az kalimai yunoni “riza” – bekh, resha, asl va “idos” – namud meboshad) shokhrondaash, (ki vazifai resharo ijro mekunad) yo lalichaash ba sang yo digar jismhoi zeriobi chaspida, dar chuqurii az 2 to 40 m zeri ob, ki nuri oftob ba kadri kofi dastras ast, faoliyati hayotiashro idoma doda, nashu- namo mekunad.

Namoyandagoni digari obsabzhoi bur niz doroi jismi kalon meboshand. Tanai onho ba juzho judo shudaast va baze khelkhoi on ba darakhti azimi shokhronda shabohat dorand. CHunin obsabz- horo qad-qaddi sohilhoi amerikoii uqyonusi Orom vokhurdan mum kin ast. Umuman, obsabzhoi bur dar bahru uqyonushoi jahoni khele vase pahn gardidand. Onho beshtar dar sohilhoi Argentina, qismi garbii Alyaska, jazirahoi Aleut, Komandor va Kuril vomekhurand.

Obsabzhoi surkh dar bahrhoi mintaqahoi tropiki va subtropiki, qisman dar mintaqahoi iqlimashon mutadil, chunonchi, sohilhoi bahri Siyoh va Norvegiya beshtar vomekhurand.

Obsabzhoi surkh niz bisyorhujayra buda (namudhoi yakhujayragiashon nikhoyat kam vomekhurad), az rui sokhtu shaklashon rishtamonandi shokhronda yo buttashakl meboshand. Bazan jismi onho ba uzvhoi ba poya va barg shabohatdoshta judo me- shavad. Andozai obsabzhoi surkh nisbat ba obsabzhoi bur khele khurd buda, darozii baze namudkhoi onkho to ba 2 m merasad.

Rangi obsabzhoi surkh gunogun buda, in gunogunrangi ba tanosubi moddakhoi rangbakhshi dar on mavjudbuda vobastagi dorad. Zero dar khromotofori obsabzhoi surkh ba juz khlorofill (moddai rangi sabzdihanda) boz moddahoi digare, ki ba onho rangi norinji, zard, bur va surkh medihand, mavjudand. Ba tufayli khlorofilli dar khromotoforho budai obsabzhoi surkh bo ishtiroki nuri oftob dar onho ravandi fotosintez meguzarad. Obsabz dar natijai in ravand gazi karbonati dar ob mavjudbudaro furu burda, oksigenro ba berun khorij mekunad va dar jismi obsabz moddahoi organiki, az qabili qand, ohar, ravgan va safedaho hosil meshavand.

  1. Obsabzhoi bur va surkh az obsabzhoi sabzi rishtamonand bo chi farq mekunand?
  2. Obsabzhoi bur va surkh dar kujo vomekhurand?
  3. Rangi obsabzhoi bur va surkh ba chi vobasta ast?
  4. Laminariya chi guna sokht dorad?
  5. CHaro laminariyaro ba rastanihoi darajai oli dokhil namekunand?
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