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OSORI  DASTRASI USTOD RUDAKI

Abuabdullohi Rudaki, ba shahodati ahli adab va tarikhnigoron, sukhanvarest, ki dar tarikhi adabiyoti forsu tojik besh az hama sheri dari guftaast. Bisyore az ahli kitob guvohi medihand, ki Rudaki sheri arabiro niz khub insho mekardaast. Binobar hamin, qarnhost, ki ahli tahqiqu tadqiq, pajuhishgaron, donoyon va adiboni jahon roje ba ejodiyoti adabi, miqdori navishtaho va maqomi voloi Ustod Rudaki bahs ovardaand, ki hanuz ham idoma dorad. Ammo dar tamomi davru zamonho buzurgivu ustodii Rudakiro chun malikushshuaro, sultoni shoiron, muqaddami shuaro, Odamushshuaro, sohibqironi shoiri va amsoli in etirof kardaand.

YAke az masalahoi bahsnoki ejodiyoti Rudaki, ki asrho boz mavridi mubohisayu muzokira qaror giriftaast, hamon masalai hajmu miqdori ashori ofaridai ust. Agar khato nakunam, to vaqthoi akhir muhaqqiqon dar in bobat, asosan, vobasta ba ruboii zerini Rashidii Samarqandi, ki dar «Lubob-ul-albob» ovarda meshavad, bahs kardaand:

Gar sari yobad ba olam kas ba nekushoiri,

Rudakiro bar sari on shoiron zebad sari!

SHeri uro man shumurdam: sezdah rah sad hazor,

Ham fuzun oyad, agar, chunon-k boyad, bishmari!

Tamomi muallifoni kitobhoi gunogune, ki dar tuli asrho ashori Rudakiro yak millionu sesad hazor bayt guftaand, sanadashon tanho hamin ruboii Rashidii Samarqandist, ki nakhustin bor Avfi dar tazkirai khud ovardaast. Qabl az Avfi kase az chunin miqdor budani ashori Rudaki khabar namedihad. Albatta, «va ashoruhu alfa va salosamoyatun alfa bayt» («va ashori u hazoru sesad hazor bayt ast») guftani Najoti niz az hamin jo sarchashma megirad. Vale dar akhbori Avfi jumlai digare niz mavjud ast: «Va chunin guyand, aluhdatu ala-r-rovi, ki ashori u sad daftar baromadaast». In guftori Avfiro niz bisyor muallifoni badinai asarhoi tarikhi va kitobhoi tazkira takror namudaand. Masalan, Abdurahmoni Jomi menavisad: « ashori vay, va-l-uhdatu ala-r-rovi (javobgarash rivoyatkunanda — A. A.), sad daftar baromadaast va dar «SHarhi YAmini» mazkur ast, ki ashori vay hazor hazoru sesad bayt budaast». CHunon ki ba mushohida merasad, sad daftar baromadani ashori Rudakiro Jomi aynan az Muhammadi Avfi iqtibos kardaast. Ammo az bayoni Jomi tasavvure paydo meshavad, ki vay 1 300 000 bayt va 100 daftarro musovi medonad.

Baze muhaqqiqon (I. S. Baraginskiy, YAn Ripka, A. Dehoti) guftai Rashidiro chun rivoyat meorand. Ammo S. Ayni va S. Nafisi durustii qavli Rashidiro tasdiq mekunand. Ustod Ayni takid mekunad, ki mo haq nadorem, ki yak shoiri buzurg, misli Rashidiro, ba duruggui aybdor namoem. S. Nafisi imkonpazir budani 1 300 000 bayt guftani Rudakiro chunin asosnok kardani meshavad: agar Rudaki dar davomi chihil sol ruze sadbayti navishta boshad, ashori u taqriban yak millionu sesad hazor bayt meshavad.

Guruhi digari muhaqqiqon (E. E. Bertels, B. Furuzonfar, X. Mirzozoda) sheri Rashidiro ba tarzi digar tavzeh doda, bar sari on aqidaand, ki Rashidi sheri Rudakiro sezdah bor shumurdaastu sad hazor bayt baromadaast. A. Mirzoev ba onho erodi durust megirad, ki mo purra bo u hamfikrem: «Vale naboyad faromush kard, ki dar in surat aloqai manavi-mantiqii mazmuni misrai seyumi sheri Rashidi bo mazmuni misrai chorumi on burida meshavad. Zero agar mazmuni misrai seyum sezdah martaba shumurdani ashori Rudaki boshad, Rashidi bad az in «ham fuzun oyad, agar, chunon ki boyad, bishmari» nameguft… CHunki bad az sezdah martaba shumurdan shubhae dar miqdori tayinshudai ashori sanjidashuda naboyad boqi monad» («Osori Rudaki», Stalinobod, 1958, sah. 8—9). Nihoyat, jambasti fikri A. M. Mirzoev kasro az bahs berun mekashad: «Vale, ba har hol, in tarafi masala yak fakti ba kulli isbotshuda ast, ki — menavisad u — Rudaki osori adabii beandoza buzurge az khud boqi guzoshta budaast».

Vaqthoi akhir tavjehi seyumi qavli Rashidi ham paydo shud, ki yake az mutaqidoni on A. T. Tohirjonov bud. Ba fikri A. T. Tohirjonov, shoyad Rashidi miqdori ashori Rudakiro sezdah rah dah hazor («SHeri uro man shumurdam: sezdah rah dah hazor») gufta boshad va kotibe bo sababe—shoyad bo maqsadi tarifro az had guzaronidan va yo az ruyi bediqqati, ba joyi «dah» kalimai «sad»-ro, ki ba vazn ham tagyirote nameorad, navishta boshad. Va tanho dar asosi hamin andeshai toriku boriki khesh A.T. Tohirjonov khulosa mebarorad, ki mikdori ashori Rudaki 130 000 bayt ast.125 Ba fikri man, in takhmin, ki tanho dar asosi «shoyad-shoyad»-ho ba miyon omadaast, poyai mustahkame nadorad. Dar in mavrid alhol faqat ba fikri R. Hodizoda sharik shudan mumkin ast, ki meguyad: «sirri qitai Rashidi hanuz kashf nagardidaast».

Doir ba hajmu miqdori ejodiyoti Rudaki malumoti Hamdullohi Qazvini, ki az haftsad hazor bayt budani ashori u shahodat medihad,126 niz mavjud ast, ammo dar raddu qabuli on kase bevosita bahs nakardaast.

Dar akhboroti Avfi va Jomi masalai majhul hamon hajmi yak daftar ast. Az omuzandagoni   ejodiyoti Rudaki, muvofiqi ittiloe, ki dar dast dorem, tanho S. Imronov dar halli in muammo kushishe kardaast. U nakhustin kasest, ki soli 1967 dar maqolai khud «CHand mulohiza az rui   yak dalel»   («Sadoi SHarq», 1967, № 3, s. 129—135)  yak bayti shoiru   lugatsozi asri XI Asadii Tusi, ki bo ejodiyoti Rudaki shinosoii tamom doshta, dar lugatash    az on shohidi ziyod   meorad, tavajjuh namuda, baytero az nazari sanjish guzarond, ki dar on roje ba 180 000 bayt   budani ashori    Rudaki fikr ronda meshavad. Asadii Tusi soli 1030 dar «Munozirai Arabu Ajam» az zaboni ajami, ki ba arab bartarii najodii    khudro isbot kardani    meshavad,    chunin bayt meorad:

SHoir chu guzin Rudaki – on, k-ash buvad ashor

Besh az sadu hashtod hazor az duru devon.

S. Imronov kushish mekunad, ki mahz ba hamin hajm barobar budani sad daftarro talqin kunad. Navisandai in satrho dar maqolai «Bahse, ki davom dorad» («Sadoi SHarq», 1974, s. 121—128) khotirnishon karda bud, ki shash daftari «Masnavii manavi»-i Jaloliddini Rumi 36 000 bayt, «Daftari dilkusho»-i Sohib qarib 4500 bayt va daftari avvali «Silsilat-uz-zahab»-i Jomi beshtar az 7 000 baytro tashkil mekunad. Binobar in, sad daftar ashor boyad dar hududi 300 000 — 400 000 bayt boshad, na 180 000 bayt! Dar in bora yak akhbori Hakim Muhammadshohi Qazvini (Majolis-un-nafois, Tehron, 1323, s. 336), ki Rudaki «sesad hazor bayt ashori khub dorad» meguyad, moro beshtar bar on sargarm namud, ki mahz hamin miqdor sher doshtani Ustod Rudakiro tarafdori kunem.

Dar omadi gap qayd kardan lozim ast, ki adabiyotshinosi asri XVI Hakim Muhammadshohi Qazvini, ki «Majolis-un-nafois»-ro solhoi 927—928/1521—1523 dar Istanbul ba tojiki tarjuma karda bud, ba tazkirai Navoi hangomi tarjuma fasli navero ilova karda, doir ba shoironi to asri XV ham malumot medihad. Mutoliai tarjumai u guvohi medihad, ki dar dast ba gayr az tazkirahoi Avfi, Davlatshoh va «Bahoriston»-i Jomi, sarchashmahoi digar niz doshtaast. SHoyad malumoti dar borai miqdori ashori Rudakiro ham az manbai qadimtare girifta boshad. Va dar in bora fikri khudro jambast namuda, mo navishta budem: «Ba aqidai mo, az hamai malumoti mavjuda akhboroti hamin muallif sahehtar ast, zero agar mo tavalludi Rudakiro 858, vafotashro 941, muddati umrashro 83 va tuli ejodiyoti uro 50 sol pindorem, ba hisobi miyona sole 6000 bayt, mohe 500 bayt va ruze 16—17 bayt guftanashro tasdiq mekunem, ki ba haqiqat khele nazdik ast. Baroi dalel dar 4 moh «Laylivu Majnun» guftani Nizomi (beshtar az 4000 bayt) va Jomi (nazdik ba 4000 bayt)-ro ba khotir ovardan kofist, ki har kadome mohe 1000 – bayti guftaand. Dar tarikhi adabiyoti jahon Rudaki yake az purmahsultarin shoiron buda, sesad hazor bayt guftani u nametavonad shubhae ba miyon orad».127 Vale tadqiqoti minbada moro ba chunin khulosae ovard, ki az aqidai sobiqi khud istihola namoem:

Avvalan, manbai digare, ki fikri boloro tasdiq kunad, bo vujudi justujuho, az hej kujo ba dast nadaromad va mutoliayu sanjishi muqarrarii navishtai Qazvini gumonero ilqo menamoyad, ki on, guyo, dar natijai ikhtisori biduni ikhtiyor va tahriri ozodi iborai «hazor hazoru sesad», ki dar «Lubob-ul-albob» va «Bahoriston» omadaast, paydo shudaast. In gireh, agar natijai sahvulqalami kotib boshad, metavonad, ki dar surati ba dast omadani nuskhahoi digari tarjumai Qazvini kushoda gardad.

Badan, ba jihati az hama qadimi budani guftori Asadii Tusi, ki ejodiyoti Rudakiro bevosita medonist, alhol shahodati uro dar joi yakum boyad guzoshtu etirof kard, ki Ustod Rudaki besh az sadu hashtod hazor, vale kamtar az dusad hazor bayt sher gufta budaast. Vale az in osori beandoza buzurgi Rudaki aknun 1050 bayt boqi mondaastu bas. Hamchunin, soli 1945 olimi arab Asad Talas dar jildi bistumi «Majallati Al-majma-ul-ilm al-arabi» (shumorai mohhoi yanvar va fevrali soli 1945), ki dar Dimishq chop meshudaast, az mavjud budani nuskhahoi khattii kitobhoi lugati arabi ba forsii «Toj-ul-masodir» va «As-somi fi-l-asomi» dar kitobkhonai al-Holidiyai shahri Baytulmuqaddas (Erusalim), ki har du ba Rudaki mansub budaand, khabar doda budaast (T. Mardonov. Bori digar roje ba osori boqimondai Ustod Rudaki. — «Akhboroti Akademiyai fanhoi RSS Tojikiston. SHubai fanhoi jamiyati», 1985, № 1, sah. 87—93). Vale, afsus, ki taqdiri minbadai in nuskhahoi qalami malum nest va kase onhoro bo nigohi tadqiq nasanjidaast.128

Kujo shud in hama ashori Rudaki, ki haddi kamtarini onro sad hazor bayt guftaand va in miqdor sher kamash bist jild kitobi mamulii hozirazamonro tashkil mekunad? Ba in savol aknun javobi qati paydo kardan muhol ast. Vale, bo takhminhovu khulosaho az voqeahoi tarikhii asrhoi X—HSH, qiyosu qarinaho va tahlili baze malumoti gayrimustaqim metavon ba khaqiqat nazdik shud. Baroi daryofti matlab kitobi zindagii Ustodro varaq zadan lozim ast: Malum ast, ki Abuabdulloh Jafar ibni Hakim ibni Abdurahmon ibni Odam Rudaki soli 858 dar Panjrud tavallud shudaast. Davrai tahsilu javoni va kamoloti u baroi az bayn raftani osori u hej guna madrake namedihad. Vale kushodani girehi in masala ba munosibati u bo darbori  Somoniyon  vobastagii  mustaqim  dorad.

CHunon ki dar bobi «Zindaginomai Ustod Rudaki» zikr shud, Odamushshuaro dar avokhiri umri khud ba harakati qarmatiya mayl karda, bo hamin «ayb» ba chashmonash mil kashida budand va hanuz dar hamon vaqt aksari doroyi    va merosi fikrii u talavu toroj va musodira karda shuda bud. In ayb yo tuhmat sababi on gardida bud, ki muqobilon va  mukholifoni  Ustod  ba  nestu  nobud kardan va az bayn burdani osori Faqat, binobar gufti dahonii muhtaram  Ahror Mukhtorov, donishmandi isroili  Mikhail Zand  ba  u khabar dodaast, ki  dar tamomi khoki Falastin az chunin asaru nuskhai khattii on nomu nishone nest.

Ba fikri mo, qarmati donista shudani Rudaki sababi asosii az bayn burdani osori u gardidaast, zero suzondanu mahv gardondani osori qarmatiyon va onhoe, ki bo tuhmat ba in jarayon nisbat doda meshudand, dar zamoni Gaznaviho va Saljuqiho niz khele rivoj dosht. Suzonda shudani Kitobkhonai Somoniyon va kharobkorihoi mugulon niz baroi az bayn raftani osori Rudaki ofathoi digare budand.

Osori Rudaki tanho dar «kitobkhonahoi bezarar» — lugatho, tarikhnomaho va kitobhoi ilmi adab boqi mondaast.

Bo vujudi in, porchahoi mavjudai osori Rudaki imkon medihad, ki roje ba mahorati ofarinandagi, jahonbini, afkori ijtimoi, nubugi shoiri va qudrati khalloqonai sukhansaroi Panjrud khulosahoi muayyane barovarda shavad.

Ustodii Rudaki dar chist? Pesh az hama, nazmi Rudaki az jihati mundarija purra va az lihozi shakl raso buda,   tamomi   masalahoi   ijtimoii   zamoni   shoir   va orzuyu omoli khalqashro inikos namuda, donishi on davraro tajassum menamoyad va bo mazmunhon najibi umumiinsoni orosta shudaast. Hudi Ustod Rudaki dar in mani mefarmoyad:

CHu durposh gardad ba mani zabonam,

Rasad marhabo az zaminu zamonam.

Ba savtu navoyu ba siti maoni

Tarabbakhshi ruham,  farahzoyi jonam!

Hirad bar baho naqdi hasti firistad,

Guharhoi rangin chu zoyad zabonam.

Bar ilovai in, Rudaki kulli janrho va navhoi adabiro ba haddi takomul va shakli nihoi rasond. Qasida, gazal, qita, ruboi va masnavi avvalin dafa dar shaklhoi komili khud dar ejodiyoti Rudaki namudor megardand. Ustod bo ibrati shakhsi, dasturho va talaboti jiddiash ba digaron namuna bud. U dar in soha muallime bud, ki hama az u payravi mekardand. Zimnan, payravi az u to imruz davom dorad. Osori boqimondai Rudaki az qasida, gazal, kita, ruboi va masnavi iborat ast. Dar tamomi asru zamonhoi badi Rudaki ahli kitob doir ba qudrati bemonandi u dar nazm va qobiliyati favqulodai badohatan sher  guftani vay sukhan rondaand. Ba qavli Davlatshohi    Samarqandi Rudaki    «az aqsomi sher qasoidu masnaviro neku meguyad».

Hamin tariq, Ustod Rudaki az shoironi purmahsuli forsu tojik buda, az ruyi hisobi Said Nafisi, sohibi devone budaast, ki taqriban bist hazor baytro faro megiriftaast. «Kalilavu Dimna»-i u az 18 hazor bayt iborat bud. Gayr az in, shash masnavii digari u, ki har kadom dar hududi haft yo hasht hazor baytro faro megiriftaand, nazdik ba haftod hazor baytro hovi budand va, bar zammi in, nazmi «Ardovirafnoma»,  jaman,  ruyihamrafta,  nazdiki  sadu  dah   hazor  bayt  ba dast meoyad.129

Ba khulosai digari Said Nafisi ham, ki Abdulgani Mirzoev niz jonibdori on ast, metavon sharik shud, ki menavisad: «Majmuai ashori Rudaki, ki zohiran dar hududi 550, ki soli talifi «CHahor maqola»-i Nizomii Aruzist, ba dast buda, az on pas dar avositi qarni shashum, ki Rashidii Samarqandi budaast, niz dar miyon buda, pas az on dar 618, ki zohiran soli talifi «Lubob-ul-albob»-i Muhammadi Avfist, niz mutadovil budaast. Sipas, zohiran dar 730, ki Hamdullohi Mustavfi «Tarikhi guzida»-ro menavishta, mutadovil nabuda, zero ki menavisad: «Andake az on mashhur ast». Albatta, agar ashori Rudaki monda bud az shoiri bad-on hama shuhrati andake sher mashhur nameshud, harchand ki Davlatshohi Samarqandi dar bobi qasidae, ki bad-on ishora raft, vonamud mekunad, ki nuskhai tamomro ba dast dorad. Vale in dalel nest, ki tamomi ashori Rudaki dar zamoni u, yane dar 892 dar miyon buda boshad. SHoyad u tamomi qasidaro nadoshta va guftai Nizomii Aruziro chun ilmi khud qalam dodaast va, shoyad, ham dar hamon zamon qasidai Rudaki komilan ba dast buda, vale soyiri ashori vay mutadovil nabudaast. Dar har surat, az in tahqiq metavon hads zad, ki shoyad ashori Rudaki dar fitnahovu masoyibe, ki dar avoili qarni haftum dar Eron va, makhsusan, Movarounnahr, ruy doda, az miyon rafta boshad va in sitame digar ast, ki az turktozi mugul ba kishvari Eron raftaast».

Agar osori Rudaki az davroni okhiri zindagii khudi u sar shuda, ba har hol baze asarhoi u to hamlai mugul boqi monda boshad ham, namunahoi okhiri on hangomi istiloi mugul az bayn raftaand. Binobar hamin, adibi qarni XVI melodi Amin Ahmadi Rozi hanuz dar zamoni u noyob budani ashori Rudakiro khabar medihad. «On chi dar safinahovu tazkiraho omada, in abyotest, ki qatrae az on sahobu charvae az on kitob ast» — menavisad u».131

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