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OBHOI HUSHKY- OBHOI ZERIZAMINI

Obhoi khushki. Tamomi namudi obhoi khushki (zerizamini va ruizyamini) az borishot paydo meshavand Borishote, ki ba sathi khushki merezad, qisman bukhor shuda, qisman ba Zamin mezahad. Bokimondai on daryoho, kulho, botloqho, piryakhho, bahru uqyonushoro ba vujud meorad. Majmui onho (obhoi zerizamini va ruizamini)-ro obhoi khushki menomand.

Obhoi zernzamini. Paydoishi obhoi zerizamini ba borishot va obguzaronii jinshoi kuhii sathi khushki vobasta meboshad. Baroi on ki obhoi zerizamini dar natijai az surokhi, tarqish, joyhoi kholigii bayni qismhoi jinshoi kuhi zahidani obi boron, jola, barfi obshuda hosil meshavand. Dar in mavrid qobiliyat va khususiyati obguzaronii jinshoi kuhi ahamiyati kalon dorad. Har kadar jinshoi kuhii porashuda ziyod, fosilai bayni zarralundaho va tarqishi jinshoi kuhi Mlon boshad, hamon kadar surati zahidani ob meafzoyad va ob qabati jinshoi kuhy zudtar meguzarad. Hok, per, shagal, sanreza, sangcha az qabili hamin guna jinshoi kuhi meboshand. Hamai in jinshoi kuhiro jinshoi kuhii obguzar menomand. Dngar jinshoi kukhii yaklukht ba monandi gil, sangi khoro, varaksang tarqish nadoshta boshand, obro az khud nameguzaronand yo ki nihoyat sust meguzaronand. Onhoro jinshoi kuhii obnoguzar meguyand.

bahr

Hamin tavr, qabathoero, ki az jinshoi obguzar hosil shudaand. qabathoi obguzar, qabathoero, ki az jinshoi obnoguzar ba vujud omadaand. qabathoi obnoguzar menomand.

Obi borishoti atmosferi (boron, barf, jola) va obhoi sathi Zamin az jinshoi obguzar ba osoni guzashta, dar boloi qabati obnoguzar jam meshavad. Dar in jo kabati obnigahdorro hosil menamoyad. Ob qabat, surokhi, tarkish fazoi bayni jinshoi qabati obnigahdorro faro megirad. Dar natija qabati obdor tashakkul meyobad, ki onro obi zerizamini menomand. Samti harakati on ba moilii qabati obnoguzar vobasta meboshad. Obi qabati obnoguzar ba kadom tarafe, ki nisheb boshad, ba hamon taraf harakat karda, az on choe, ki qabati obnogahdor ba rui Zamin uryon shudaast, hamchun chashma baromada jori meshavad. Ba aqidan Ibni Sino “Obho dar natijai jam shudan va purquvvat shudan ba berun zada mebaroyand va chashmahoro hosil mekunand. Ana az hamin sabab ham mebinem, ki aksari chashmaho favvora zada mebaroyand”.

Jinshoi kukii tahshin va poragi dar qismi  boloi qishri Zamin qabat- qabat khobidaand. Dar in surat qabathoi obguzar va obnoguzar metavonayad yakdigarro pay dar ham ivaz namoyand. In imkoniyat medihad, ki dar bayni du qabati obnoguzar obi bayni qabatho hosil shavad. Ob ba qabathoi obnoguzar hamon vaqt dokhil meshavad, ki agar yagon qismi on qabatho dar rui Zamin uryon boshad. yo ki onhoro obi daryo kofta jory kunad. Dar har du holat nisbat ba qabati obnigahdor obi bayni qabatho sust jam meshavad, chunki dar in jo sathi qabati jinshoi obguzar farokh nabuda, mahdud ast.

Obhoi zerizamini nisbat ba qabati obguzar nazdik va yo dur joygir shudaand. Inro az rui qabati boloi obkhoi zerlzamini muayyan mekunand, ki onro sathi obi zerizamini menomand. Balandi va pastii on ba ziyod va kam budani borishot, nazdik va serob budani daryo, kulu obanborho (dar holati dur budan past meshavad), ba yaklukhti va bo jaru soyho ba qismho judo shudani sathi mahal vobasta meboshad. Agar mahal ba qitahoi alohida judo boshad, dar in surat sathi obi zerizaminy past meshavad.

Istifodai obhoi zerizamni. Vobasta ba tarkib (shiriny va shuri) va khosiyat (khunuk va garm) obhoi zerizamini vase istifoda burda meshavand. Obi chashmaro odamon baroi nushidan, obyori va digar ekhtiyojoti zindagi istifoda mebarand.

Agar qabati obdor dar bayni du qabati obnoguzar joygir shuda boshad, obi bayni onho  fishordor meshavad. Hangomi parma kardani Zamin az qabati obdor ob favvora zada msbaroyad. Onro chohi arteziani meguyand.

Ob halkunandai tabiy meboshad. Vay namakho va gazhoro dar khud mahdul mekunad. Binobar in dar baze mintaqahoi rui Zamin az zeri Zamin ob baromada jori meshavad, ki az namak va gazhoi mahlulshuda gany meboshad. Onro obi minerali yo madani meguyand. Obi minerali khunuk va garm meshavad. CHunin ob dar qalamravi Jumhurii Tochikiston va Qafkoz bisyor ast. SHambari, Obigarm, Hojaobigarm, Hoja Sangkhok, Garmchashma, Barshor, Havotog, Fayzobod dar jumhurii mo va Borjomi. Esssntuki, Kislovodsk va gayra dar Qafqoz az qabili chunin ob meboshand. Dar nazdi aksariyati in chashmaho tabobatkhonaho bunyod kardaand. Obi onhoro baroi tabobagi bemorihoi gunogun istifoda mekunand. Dar baze mampakatho obi garmi chashmahoro baroi garm kardani khonahoi istiqomati, korkhonaho, garmkhonayu parvardakhonaho ba kor mebarand.

Muhofizati obi zernzamnni. Dar bisyor mintaqakhoi kurai Zamin obi nushokii ruizaminy kifoyat namekunad. binobar in dar on joyho az obi bayni qabatho istifoda mebarand. Dar natijai az had ziyod istifoda burdani chunin ob dar bze mintaqahoi rui Zamin miqdori on sol az sol kam shuda isgodaast. Baroi on ki obi bayni kabatho ba monandi obi qabati boloi khar sol az hisobi borishot ziyod nameshava Baraks, jamshavii onho  sust va tuloni meboshad. Dar davomi sadho va hazorho sol jam meshavad. In odi menamoyad, ki onro odamon sarfakorona va bomaqsad istifoda, barand.

Qabati boloii obi zerizamini ba sathi Zamin bevosi aloqamand ast. Binobar in ba vositai borishot, obhoi partovi sanoat, khojagii qishloq moddahoi gunoguni zakhirai mahlul shuda, ba obi zerizaminy hamroh meshavand va on iflos mekunand. Toza kardani on gayriimkon ast. Binobar  kushish boyad kard, ki chunin moddaho ba obhoi zerizamini dokhil nashavand.

Savol va supornsh

  1. Kadom obhoro obhoi khushki meguyand?
  2. Kadom jinshoi kuhi obro meguzaronand, kadomashon nameguzaronand?
  3. Obhoi zerizaminy chi tavr paydo meshavand?
  4. Obhoi zerizamini az jihati paydoish va tarkib chand khel meshavand?
  5. CHy guna obi zerizaminiro obi bayni kabatho meguyand?
  6. Obi zerizaminiro ba kadom maqsadho istifoda mebarand?
  7. Hosilshavii obi bayni qabatho az obi qabati boloy chi tafovut dorad?
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