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Nizomi siyosii Angliya dar okhiri asri XIX – avvali asri XX

Sokhti siyosii Angliya dar rafti inqilobi burjuazy va badi on dar asrhoi XVI 1-HVIII ba vujud omada, dar okhirhoi asri XIX – avvali asri XX takmil yoftaast. Angliyai okhiri asri 19 – avvali asri 20 davlati mutlaqiyati parlamenty gardid. Hokimiyati mutlaqai shohy (yo khud malika) tavassuti konstitutsiya va parlament mahdud karda shud. In vaqt misli asrhoi miyona shoh dar mamlakat maqomi baland nadosht. Kabineti vaziron tamomi korhoi amrdihiyu ijroiyaro dar ikhtiyori khud dosht.

Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX dar Angliya sistemam duhizbii hokimiyat ba hukmi anana daromad. Liberalho (vigi) va Konservatorho (tori) misli peshtara bo navbat (kadomashro, ki intikhobkunandagon intikhob kunand) ba sari hokimiyat meomadand. Sistemam duhizby manfiati aksariyati aholii mamlakatro ifoda mekard.

Vakhte ki yake az in hizbho dar sari hokimiyat meshud, hizbi digari dar oppozitsiyamonda ba faoliyati hizbi hukmron nazorat mekard. Baroy siyosati davlatii guyo nodurustash hizbi oppozitsiony hizbi hukmronro ba zeri tanqidn sakht megirift. Dar barobari in vay ba intikhobkunandagon vadahoi bisyor medod, ki agar dar sari hokimiyat mebud, dar siyosati dokhiliyu khorijy chy tavr raftor mekard. Vakiloni hizbi oppozitsioni baron in maqsad minbari parlgmentro ham samaranok istifoda meburdand. Bo hamin roh hizbi oppozitsiony to intikhoboti oyanda diqqati intikhobkunandagonro ba tarafi khud mekashid. Dar intikhoboti parlamenty kadom hizbe, ki golib mebaromad, kabineti vazironro tashkil mekard va namoyandai on sarvazir tayin karda meshud.

Hamin tariq, az soli 1868 cap karda to sarshavii Jangi yakumi jahoni hamdigarro ivaz namuda, namoyandagoni in khizbho – goh Gladstonu Dizraely va goh CHemberlenu Solsberi ba hukumati Angliya rohbary kardaand. YAke ba zakhmatkashon guzasht mekard, digarash ba inhisorkho, yake dar siyosati khorijy muvaffaqiyat ba dast medarovardu digarash dar siyosati dokhily. Bazan hukmronii in va yo on hizbi siyosi dar khamai in samtho bomuvaffaqiyat ham surat megirift. Dar in mavrid intikhobkunandagon hamon hukumat, durustarash hamon hizbi hukmronro az nav intikhob menamudand.

Sistemai duhizby mohiyati sistemai demokratii Angliyai onvaqtaro ifoda mekard.

Mohiyati imperializmi yanglis. Kabineta Gladston, ki soli 1868 ba sari hokimiyat omad, ba siyosati dokhily beshtar ahamiyat dod. Az on jumla, on dar intikhobot ba parlament ovozdihii pinhonii intikhobkunandagonro jori namud, tred-yunionhoro qonuny gardonid. In hukumat islohoti dodgohiro ba amal barovard, kharidu furushi mansabhoi harbiro man kard, baroi khizmatchiyoni davlaty imtihon chory namud. In qonunho khub budand. Vale qonun dar borai dar nazdi korkhonaho man karda shudani tashkili girdikhamoiho ziddi mehnatkashon bud. SHoyad az hamin sabab boshad, ki dar intikhoboti soli 1876 hizbi liberaly shikast khurd. Solhoi 1876- 1880 ba kabineta vaziron konservator Dizraely rokhbary kard.

Konservatorho beshtar ba siyosati istilogaronai khorichy mashgul shudand. Dizraely bore izhor karda bud, ki Angliya ”az islohot monda shudaast”. Baroi kamin vay boyad “dam girad”.

Soli 1875 Dizraely bo khilayu nayrang az khidevi Mier sakhmiyakhoi ziyodi Kanali Suetsro kharida girifta, Angliyars shariki sokhtmoni in kanal gardonid. Soli 1876 Dizraely malika Viktoriyaro “Imperatorbonui Hinduston” elon kard. Malika boshad, baroi dar mustamlikazabtkunii Angliya kornamoy kardan ba Dizraely unvonhoi fakhrii graf Bikonsfild va lordro tuhfa kard.

Kabineti Konservatorho dar SHarqi Nazdiku Miyona va dar Afrikai Januby siyosati istilogaronaro pesh girift. Dar siyosati sharqii khud imperializmi Angliya bo Turkiyai feodaly takya mekard. Turkiya baroi vay ham bozori qulayi molfurushiyu sarmoyaguzory va ham baroi davom dodani istaloi Balkanu SHarqi Nazdik takyagohi boetimod bud. Soli 1878 Angliya ba ivazi dastgirii Turkiya dar jangi solhoi 1877 – 1878 bar ziddi rusiya az Turkiya jazirai Kiprro gasb kard.

Angliya nisbati Eronu Afgoniston ham siyosati zabtkoronaro pesh girift. Dizraely bahona kard, ki guyo Angliya in mamlakathoro az tobeiyati Rusiya najot medoda boshad.

Soli 1879 Angliya bo “tashrifi makhsus” ba Afgoniston dastai kaloni harby firistod, lekin afgonho onro ba khoki davlati khud dokhil shudan namondand. In amal baroi bar ziddi Afgonistoni sohibikhtiyor cap kardani amaliyotkhoi harbii Angliya bahona shud. Ba Angliya muyassar shud, ki muvaqqatan dar in jo ba muvaffaqiyat noil shavad. Afgoniston ba Angliya tobe shud.

Imperializmi Angliya dar okhirhoi asri XIX – avvali asri XX ham siyosati istilogaronai khudro idoma dod. Lekin aknun in siyosat digar ba on vobastagi nadosht, ki hokimiyati siyosi dar dasti Konservatorho ast va yo dar dasti liberalho. Dar in davra Angliya ba imperiyai buzurgi mustamlikavi tabdil yoft. Az in ru, imperializmi anglis mustamlikavi bud.

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