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Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi

Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi yo khud «Ahmad» nom doshta, padaru boboyash Umar va Ali budaand. Takhalusash — Nizomi. Laqabash Aruzi budaast. Samarqand zodgohi ust. Az rui ananai roiji zamon, nisbai u Samarqandi shudaast. Takhmin meravad, ki shoyad solhoi 475-80 hijri (1086-91 melodi) ba dunyo omada boshad.

nizomi-aruzii-samarqandiJavoni bisyor khushsaliqa, donishomuz, tezzehne bud Ahmad. Az in khotir, ba bisyore az ilmhoi farogiri hamon zamon chun hisob, handasa, riyozi, nujum, kimiyo, adab vorid shuda bud. Hamon sole, ki hazrati Umari Hayyom ba markazi ilmiyu adabii Huroson, yane ba Balkh tashrif ovard (soli 506 hijri — 1113 melodi). Nizomi khudro ba didori Hayyom rasonid. On vaqtho Hayyom na chun shoir, balki chun sitorashinos, riyozidon, hakim marufiyat dosht. Va azbaski Nizomii Aruzi ham havasmandi ilmhoi tabii bud, Hayyomro chun ustodi khud shinokht va ba soli 530 hijri (1135 milodi) vaqte guzorash ba Nishopur aftod, oromgohi Hakim Hayyomro zi yorat kard, duoi khayr dod va qarzi shogirdiro ba jo ovard.

Dar bandi tu, ay shoh, Malikshoh boyad,
To bandi tu poi tojdore soyad.
On kas, ki zi pushti Sadi Salmon oyad,
Gah zahr shavad, mulki turo nagzoyad.

Ruzgori ayyomi javonii Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi ba yak davrai purfojiai tarikhii hayoti siyosii Movarounnahru Huroson rost omad. Davlati abarqudrati Gaznaviyon tufayli istiqlolkhohii shohonu amironash ba parokandagi ru nihoda bud. Turkhoi salchuqi bo sarvarii Sulton Sanjar az hokimiyati Gaznaviyon sarkashi karda, dar Marv markazi mamurii khudro bunyod sokhtand va baroi ba sari khojahoi sobiqashon — Gaznaviyon teg kashidan omoda shudan girif tand.
Sarvaroni qabilahoi parokandai tojikoni vohai Gur (sarzamini kuhistoni Bomiyon va vodii Harirud) dar SHimol to Kapisoyu sarhadi Badakhshon ba zeri livoi Qutbuddini Mahmudi Guri ittifoq orostand va talabu farmonhoi
sulton Masudi Gaznaviro pisand namekardagi shudand.

Dar Samarqandu Bukhoro qarluqhoi biyobongardi kuchii Qarokhoni sar darovardandu davoi hokimiyat kardand. Ana, dar hamin vaziyati pareshonii mulku diyor Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi sar ba har dar mezad, to kharidore yobad, ki tufayli ilmu donishash va yo ashori shogirdonaash moyai zindagi paydo kunad. Nayoft. Hatto soli 510 hijri (1117 melodi) qasidai madhiyae navishta, khudro ba darbori Salchuqiyon, ba amirushshuaroi in darbor — Amir Muizzi muarrifi kard. Amir Muizzi ham ba gushi u nasihati bisyore khondu az dar rond.
Dar taqdiri badii Nizomii Aruzi poshkhurii davlati Gaznaviyon va dar okhirhoi asri XI ba sari qudrat omadani hokimiyati tojikoni Gur roli muassire bozid. Nizomii Aruzi khudro ba dabirii darbori Guriyon zad va “Bandai mukhlis…chihilu panj sol to ba khidmati in khonadon mavsum shud”.

Va dar hamin jo tuli 10 soli okhiri zindagoni kitobchai yoddoshtmonande bo unvoni “CHahor maqola” az nugi qalami u rui qogaz rekht. Dar maqolai yakumi kitob sukhan az bobbi hunaru istedodi dabiri (kotibi) meravad, maqolai duyum ba masalai sheru shoiri bakhshida shudaast, ilmi nujum va donishi omukhtai munajjim dar on ilm maqolai seyumi kitobcha ast. Maqolai chahorum “Dar ilmi tibb va hidoyati tabib” nom dorad.
Hamai hikoyot va rivoyot az ruzgori onhoe hast, ki dar unvoni maqola ishora shudaast. Inak, yake az on hikoyaho az ruzgori shoiri shinokhtai maddohi darbori Gaznaviyon Masudi Sadi Salmon:

HIKOYAI RUZGORI MASUDI SADI SALMON AZ KITOBI “CHAHOR MAQOLA”- I NIZOMII ARUZII SAMARQANDI.

“Dar shuhuri sanai asnatinu sabin va khamsamoiya (572 hijri, 1178 milodi) sohibgaraze qissa ba sulton Ibrohim bardosht, ki pisari u — Sayfuddavla amir Mahmud niyati on dorad, ki ba jonibi Iroq biravad ba khizmati Malikshoh. Sultonro gayrat kard va chunon sokht, ki uro nogoh bigiriftu bibast va ba hisor firistod. Va nadimoni uro band kardandu ba hisorho firistod. Az jumla, yake Masudi Sadi Salmon bud va uro ba Vajiriston, ba qalai Noy firistodand.
Az qalai Noy du bayte ba sulton firistod (Masudi Sadi Salmon farmoyad):
Dar bandi tu, ay shoh, Malikshoh boyad, To bandi tu poi tojdore soyad. On kas, ki zi pushti Sadi Salmon oyad, Gah zahr shavad, mulki turo nagzoyad.
In dubayti (ruboi — U.T.) Alii Hos bari sulton burd, bad u hej asare nakard. Va arbobi khiradu ashobi insof donand, ki habsiyoti Masud dar uluv ba chi daraja rasidaastu dar fasohat ba chi poya buvad. Vaqt boshad, ki man ashori u hame-
khonam, muy bar andomi man bar poy khezad va joi on buvad, ki ob az chashmi man biravad. Jumlai in ashor bar on podshoh khondand va u bishnid, ki bar hej mavze u garm nashud va az dunyo biraftu on ozodmardro dar zindon bigzosht.

Muddati habsi u, ba sababi qurbati Sayfuddavla, duvozdah sol bud. Va dar ruzgori sulton Masudi Ibrohim, ba sababi qurbati u Abunasri Porsiro hasht sol bud. Va chandon qasoidi gurraru (barguzidayu) nafoisi durrar (durho), ki az tabi naqqodi (rasoi ) u zoda, albatta, hej masmu nayaftod (maqbul nashud).
Bad az hasht sol siqqatulmulk Tohir Alii Mushkon uro berun ovard. Va jumla on ozodmard dar davlati eshon hama umr dar habs ba sar burd va in badnomi dar on khonadoni buzurg bimond. Va mani banda in jo mutavvaqqifam (isto daam), ki in holro bar chi haml kunam: bar saboti (ustuvorrii) ray, yo bar baddili. Dar jumla sutuda nest va nadidam hej khiradmand, ki on davlatro bar in hazmu ehtiyot mahmadat (sitoish) kard.
Va az sultoni olam Giyosuddunyo vaddin Muhammad ibni Malikshoh ba dari Hamadon dar voqeai amir SHihobuddin Kutulmush Alp- gozi, ki domodi u bud,
ba khohari, tayyaba Allahu turbatahumo va rafaa fil-jino-ni rutbatahumo (Hudo khoki on duro pokiza gardonad va dar bihisht darajai ononro baland kunad) shunidam, ki khasmi dar habs doshtan nishoni baddilist, zero ki az du hol berun
nest: yo musleh (khayrkhoh) ast, yo mufsid (badkor). Agar musleh ast, dar habs doshtan zulm ast va agar mufsid ast, mufsidro zinda nigoh doshtan ham zulm ast. Dar jumla bar Masud ba sar omad va on badnomi to domani qiyomat bimonad.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:
1. Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi kist: shoir, navisanda, olim?
2. Sababi ovoragardihoi Nizomi dar ovoni javoni chi bud?
3. Nizomii Aruzi az khizmatash dar darbori Guriho qanoatmand bud? CHaro?
4. Mundarijai «CHahor maqola»-ro nombar kuned.
5. Sababi zindoni shudani Masudi Sadi Salmonro Nizomii Aruzi dar chi mebined?
6. Hulosai Nizomii Aruziro az rui farmudai khudi u: «Hasmi dar habs doshtan nishoni baddilist, zero ki az du hol berun nest: yo musleh (khayrkhoh), yo mufsid (badkor). Agar musleh ast, dar habs doshtan zulm ast, agar mufsid ast, mufsidro zinda nigoh doshtan ham zulm ast» (az rui in khulosa bahsi sinfi sozmon dihed).

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