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Nazariyai materialistii paydoishi hayot

Baroi nazariyai abadi budani hayot masalai paydoishi hayot vujud nadorad, zero nazariyai mazkur tafovvuti zindaro az gayrizinda etirof namesozad. In nazariya zindayu gayrizindaro az majmui yagona iborat donista, masalai paydoishi yake az digarero namepazirad. Agar mavjud budani farqiyati makhsusro dar bayni zinda va gayrizinda ba nazar girem, pas khud az khud savoli paydoishi in farqiyat ba miyon meoyad. Halli savoli mazkur ba fahmishe aloqamand ast, ki inson dar borai farqiyati materiyai gayrizinda az organizmhoi zinda dorad.

materializm

Imkoniyati durust ba miyon mondani chunin savol tanho pas az tadqiqothoi L.Paster va amiqtar gashtani donishhoi inson oid ba khudi mafhumi hayot ba vujud omad. Dar tarikhi omuzishi paydoishi hayot nazariyai olimi nemis E.Pflyuger (1875) ahamiyati makhsus dorad.

Fahmishi paydoishi hayot baroi Pflyuger, misli olimoni imruza, az masalai paydoishi safeda va darajai tashakkuli on mansha megirift. Pflyuger farqi safedai «zindaro» az «favtida» mavridi omuzish qaror dod. In farqiyat, asosan az on iborat ast, ki baraksi safedai «favtida» safedai «zinda» noustuvor buda, qobiliyati tagyiryobi dorad.

CHunin khosiyati safedai «zindaro» dar zamoni Pflyuger ba mavjudiyati oksigen dar molekulai safeda vobasta medonistand. Aqidai mazkur dar zamoni hozira ba inobat girifta nameshavad. Masalai digare, ki diqqati Pflyugerro oidi farqiyati safedai «zinda» az «favtida» jalb mekard, dar molekulai safedai «zinda» vujud doshtani gu-ruhi sian (CN) meboshad. Bo in, olim kushish mekard, ki dar borai paydoishi in radikali asosi baroi molekulai safeda tasavvurot ba vujud orad. Bo aqidai Pflyuger, payvastagihoi siani hanuz dar davrai massai tasfonro tashkil dodani Zamin paydo shudaand.

Dar sharoiti laboratori mahz dar chunin harorat bo rohi suni payvastagii nombarshudaro hosil kardan mumkin ast. Minbad, barobari sard shudani rui Zamin payvastagihoi sian bo ob va moddahoi digari khimiyavi ba hosilshavii safedae, ki khosiyati «hayoti»  dosht, ovarda rasond.

Imruz nazariyai Pflyuger kuhna shuda boshad ham, muhimash on ast, ki u ba masalai paydoishi hayot bahoi materialisti doda, safedaro chun qismi asosii sitoplazma hisob kardaast. Paydoishi moddai safedaro ba tavri digar niz tasavvur kardan mumkin ast. Pas az tadqiqothoi Pflyuger dere naguzashta oidi bo rohi biokhimiyavi hosil kardani moddai safeda kushishho karda shud. Masalan, olimi anglis CH.Ellen (1899), baraksi Pflyuger paydoishi payvastagihoi avvalini nitrogeniro dar Zamin ba on davrae muvofiq medonist, ki bughoi ob dar natijai khunuk shudan fishurda gashta, ba ob tabdil yoftaand va rui Zaminro pushonidaand.

Dar ob namaki metallhoe hal shudaand, ki baroi hosil shudani safeda va faoliyati on ahamiyati khele kalon doshtaand. Dar chunin ob miqdori muayyani kislotai karbonat niz vujud doshta, on ba oksidhoi nitrogen va ammiak payvast meshud. Ammiak boshad, dar natijai radu barq az havoi nitrogendor hosil shuda metavonist.

Minbad, nazariyai mazkur, ki ba okhiri asri HIH taalluq dorad, samthoi asosiro durust qayd mekunad va imruz niz masalai paydoishi hayot vujud dorad.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Asos va mohiyati hayot az nazari faylasufoni dunyoi qadimchi guna ast?
  2. Mazmuni tajribahoi F.Redi az chi iborat ast?
  3. Tajribahoi L.Pasterro oid ba isboti nomumkin budani khud az khud paydo shudani hayot dar sharoiti hozira hikoya kuned.
  4. Nazariyai abadi budani hayot chiro nishon medihad?
  5. SHumo kadom nazariyai materialistii paydoishi hayotro medoned?
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