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Navodir-ul-vaqoe: Sokht va mundarija

«Navodir-ul-vaqoe» dar merosi adabii Ahmadi Donish mavqei markazi dorad. In asar zahmati 15-sola va mavodi yakumrai girdovardai muallif ast. Navisanda ba talifi asar soli 1870 ogoz namuda, onro soli 1885 ba itmom rasonidaast. Talifi in asar muallifi onro miyoni ahli jomeai onruzai Bukhoro hamchun adibi tavono va mutafakkiri zabardast shinosonid. Ahmadi Donish dar in asar bisyor masalahoi muhimmi falsafiyu ijtimoiro, ki mavridi qazovati faylasufon va mutafakkironi guzashta bud, az didgohi nav va dar ahdi barkhurdho bo tamadduni Avrupoi ba tahlilu tasvir giriftaast.

Az in ru, «Navodir- ul-vaqoe» baroi bedorii fikri, baroi junbishi mafkuravii millat va umuman muosironi Ahmadi Donish, payravoni u va ziyoiyoni peshqadami okhiri asri XIX va ibtidoi sadai HH tasiri amiqu daqiq guzoshtaast. Zero solhoi tahsil dar madrasa, robita bo darboru darboriyon, makhsusan safarhoi u ba Rossiya, munosibat bo olimon, harbiyon, siyosatmadoroni Avrupo jahonbini va tafakkuri uro nisbat ba siyosat va iqtisodiyoti amorati bukhoro tagyir doda bud.

Sokhtori asar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» az nigohi sokhtu tarkib bisyor jolib ast. Asar khati yaklukhti doroi sujeti muayyan nest va qismathoi sujetro ham dar bar namegirad. Asar dar majmu az bistu se bob iborat meboshad, vale bobi 15-umi on farq dorad. Zero in bob «Risola dar nazmi tamaddun va taovun» nom doshta, doroi muqaddima va se bobi judogona meboshad, ki badtar onro sharh khohem dod. Bobhoi «Navodir- ul-vaqoe» gunogunmavzu buda, chahordah bobi asar tahlilu tadqiqi muallif ast, ki dar bobi ponzdah jambasti on ba sifati yak nav risolai judogona ovarda shudaast.

Umuman, hamai bobhoi asar az nigohi goyavu mazmun va maqsadi muallif ba ham yak nav payvandi mantiqi doshta, yake digarro taqviyat medihad, purra mekunad. Mushohidakor yo tahlilgar, ki bayoni bobu naqli hikoyot niz ba u taalluq dorad, shakhsiyati olimu dono, mutafakkir va jomeashinosi buzurgest, ki SHarqro bo tamomi juziyot va Garbro ham khub medononad. Metavonad mushohidakor shakhsiyate boshad, ki jahonbinii nihoyat vase, safarkarda, talimdida va qiyoskunanda boshad. Dar asl chunin ham hast. Ahmadi Donish hamchun jomeashinos jamiyatro be sardor imkonpazir medonad.

Az in ru, dar «Navodir-ul- vaqoe» oid ba tarbiyai avlodi inson, munosibati nihoyat jiddi va ehtiyotkorona nisbat ba farzandon va tarbiyai muntazami onho, khususan oid ba akhloq va muomilai tabaqahoi jamiyati, akhloqi tabaqahoi hukmron, rioyai adolat va mahkum namudani noadolati, naqshi amir, qozivu mufti, vaziru qushbegi va gayra dar bobhoi judogonai asar andeshahoi shakhsii khudro bayon namudaast.

Ahmadi Donish maorif, tahsil va talimu tarbiyaro asosi jomea medonad. Vay barnomai tahsil, sabku usuli talim, kitobhoi darsi, jarayoni darsho va gayraro dar talimdihandahoi Bukhoroi zamoni muallif, yake az masalahoi markazii asari khud medonad.

Masalahoi mazkur dar bobhoi «Dar tahqiqi huquqi abavayn (padaru modar) va haddu huquqi onho», «Dar tahqiqi matoi dunyo va haqiqati muomiloti on», «Dar vasoyoi farzandon va bayoni haqiqati kasbu peshaho» va g. khele bo dalelu burhoni qote bayon shudaast.

Mazmunu muhtavoi asar. Mazmuni mukhtasari «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» taqriban chunin ast:

Muqaddima. Dar in jo muallif sababi talif shudani asarro bo mazmunu mundarijai on zikr mekunad.

Bobi yakum. «Dar tahqiqi huquqi abavayn…» Oid ba tarbiyai farzandon va shinokhti padaru modar ast.

Bobi duyum. «Dar tahqiqi matoi dunyo va haqiqati muomiloti on». Dr in bob beshtar kormandoni korhoi davlati va faoliyati onho ba tahlil girifta shudaast, ki boyad onho manaviyati boy doshta boshand, to az harisi parhez kunand.

Bobi seyum. «Dar tahqiqi tarikhi olam va taftishi hudusu qidam». Hatto az unvoni bob paydost, ki oid ba paydoishi olam va umuman falsafai ofarinish bahs raftaast.

Bobi chahorum. «Dar illati nakbati uqalo va sababi davlati sufaho». Dar in bob oid ba sababhoi badbakhtii oqilon va khushbakhtii bedonishon bahs meravad. Ahmadi Donish takid mekunad, ki inson mahz ba khotiri manfiathoi moddi talosh navarzad, balki beshtar ba manaviyat tavajjuh zohir namoyad. Boyad inson tanho nafrasoni jomea boshad.

Bobi panjum. «Dar hikoyati faromushkhona va bayoni qurbi soat».

Bobi shashum. «Dar hikoyati Hoji va manofei safar va khislati zanon» Doir ba sarguzashti mardi bukhoroi, ki ba sayhat baromada khele tuloni safar kardaast, naql karda meshavad.

Bobi haftum. «Dar hikoyati Abulqosimbi va safari rusiya».

Bobi hashtum. «Dar saforati Abulqodirbek va ajoibi jashni Russiya».

Bobi nuhum. «Dar hikoyati girdobi Iskandar va ganoi mardi ajami».

Bobi dahum. «Dar tahqiqi ishqu muhabbati haqiqi va majozi va odobi ishqbozi». In bob niz misli digar bobho bo usuli suolu javob navishta shudaand.

Bobi yozdahum. «Dar odobi nikoh va bayoni khususiyati modarshu».

Bobi duvozdahum. «Dar tahqiqi qazovu qadar» Dar in bakhsh Ahmadi Donish vujudi zindagiro doroi chor rukn: khurdan, pushidan, zanu farzand kardan va maskan sokhtan medonad.

Bobi sezdahum. «Dar vasoyoi farzandon va bayoni haqiqati kasbhovu peshaho».

Bobi chordahum. «Dar tahqiqi ruh va nisbati taalluqi on ba abdon».

Bobi ponzdahum. «Risola dar nazmi tamadun va taovun». In yagona bobi «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» ast, ki komilan mustaqil buda, az muqaddima, se fasl va khotima iborat meboshad.

Dar muqaddima sababhoi paydoishi odami, khayri on va ikhtiyori u dar chist… va g. bahs raftaast.

Fasli avval – «Dar fazilati amorat va rayosat va muomilati salotin bo Haq».

Fasli duyum – «Dar suluki umaro bo sipoh va khadam va hasham».

Fasli seyum – «Dar tariqi raiyatdori va fuqaroparvari va rasidan ba gavri muhommii zerdaston».

Hotima. Dar tayini muluk ba nudamo va muqarrabon.

Dar in risolai khurd ovarda meshavad, ki inson shariftarini makhduqot ast. Hama chiz baroi inson ofarida shudaast. Zoti inson az aqli sharifa va nafsi kasifa murakkab ast.

Inson boyad ilmu marifat omuzad va az rui ilmu marifat va aqlu farosat rohi durustro paymoyad.

Bobi shonzdahum. «Dar tahqiqi hayati arz va takavvuni maodin va mo yunosaba zolika». Dar in bob Ahmadi Donish oid ba jinshoi kuhi, konho, madanhoi zerizamini, zaminjunbi, vulkonho malumot medihad.

Bobi habdahum. «Dar faraj bad az yasu khamul».

Bobi hajdahum. «Dar navodiri holoti ashkhos, ki az jangi sibo jastand».

Bobi nuzdahum. «Dar tabiri ruyoi hoila, ki dalolat bar hudusi voqea mekard». Muallif doir ba khobhoi didai khesh hikoyat mekunad. In khobho baze lahzahoi sharhiholii khudi muallif niz hast. YAne bisyor lahzahoi tarjumaiholii Donishro niz ravshan mesozad.

Bobi bistum. «Dar tahriri manoii baze abyot, ki afozili asr istado namuda budand». Dar in bob Donish baze baythoi Bedilro sharhu tavzeh medihad.

Bobi bistu yakum. «Hikoyati buzinai tabbokh».

Bobi bistu duyum. «Dar manii hadisi «Saqf-ul-jannati arshu-r- Rahmoni va bayoni hashru Nashr».

Bobi bistu seyum. «Dar tashkhisi akhloqi inson». Ahmadi Donish dar in bob menavisad, ki inson dar khulqu atvor misli tillo va nuqra ast, zero tillo va nuqra to in ki kholis shavand, az chandin kuravu buta meguzarand. Inson ham boyad az chandin tajribahoi ruzgor guzarad, to in ki khislathoi razilavu badi khudro raf sozad. U beshtar az sokinoni jomeai onruzai Bukhoro namunaho meorad. Baroi on ki insoni oqil va insoni johilro az ham farq guzored, boyad onhoro sanjid.

Lahzahoi tarjumaholii Donish dar asar khele ziyodand. Dar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» az ogoz to anjom mo naqshi ejodkori onro mushohida mekunem. Zero aksari bobhoi asar ba tariqi suolu javobi muallif bo obrazi asosii bob, ki dustoni muallif meboshand, somon yoftaad. CHunonchi, dar bobi panjum «Dar hikoyati faromushkhona va bayoni qurbi soat» omadaast:

«Navbate muharriri suturro bo jame az duston dar ziyofate ittifoqi majlise aftod. Mizbon ba taqribi hikoyate ovard, az on chi bar u guzashta bud. Va man chun gushu chashm ba iborat kushoda doshtam, surati on bazmro dar silki taqrir kashidam.

Mizbon chun az naqizu raddi sukhani yoron ojiz bud, dar aksari muqaddimot muharriri suturro ba shahodat mekashad, ki agar bovar nadored va dar shak boshed, az mehmon pursed, ki vay didaast va khub shunida va medonad va dar aksari in maoriku majolis rasida va khub medonad.

Va man niz dar on chi dida budam va yaqin donista, guvohi medodam…»

Agar dar in bobho jarayoni voqeaho ba tariqi suolu javob surat girifta boshad, dar baze hikoyoti digar adib komilan sarguzashti khudro bayon mesozad. Masalan, bobhoi haftumu hashtumro metavon nombar kard. In bobho safarhoi Ahmadi Donishro ba Rossiya dar bar megirad. CHunonchi: «Navbate, ki ba mashubi Sayid Abdulfattura va rafoqati Abulqosim-bi ba saforati Rus ittifoqi vurud aftod, rasm ast, ki dar jo elchiyonro baroi izhori johu dastgohi davlati khesh va majolisu mahofili buzurg va tamoshokhonaho imoroti oliya va khazoinu dafoi megardonand va bad-on tafokhuru mubohot mekunand…

Va biljumla shabe mutarjim az qibali vazir omada, moro ba majlise «suroniya» nom taklif namud. Bo chahor nafar dar on bazm raftem. Dar imorate rafe va manei olii zarandud daromadem, mabno bar khonaho va hujaroti bisyor va darhoi oyinakori va az hama darho pardahoi harir furuhishta, mushtamil ba katu karovati zarnigor va oyinahoi sitabri buzurg barobari qaddi odami nihoda». va gayra. YAne faol gardidani simoi adib dar in bob, chunon ki malum shud, beshtar ba nazar merasad. Zero mushohidagar va naqlkunanda khudi adib ast.

Az tarafi digar, bobi mazkur kholi az hama guna khayolbofivu tasvirsozihost. Zero muallif har on chizero mebinad, mushohida mekunad, onro aynan ba qalam meorad. In bobro metavon ocherki safari nomid. Voqean chunin tarzi safarnomanavisi dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik az Nosiri Husrav («Safarnoma»-asari nasri) shakli manzumi on boshad az Hoqonii SHarvoni («Tuhfat-ul-Iroqayn») ogoz shudaast. Davomi mantiqii bobi haft bobi hashtum ba shumor meravad, ki «Dar saforati Abdulqodirbek va ajoibi jashni Rusiya»-nom dorad. In bob niz misli ocherki safari buda, Ahmadi Donish sarguzashti khud va mushohidahoi safarashro ba qalam dodaast. CHunonchi: «Navbate ba mashubi Abdulqodirbeki Dodkhoh dar mavridi tui imperaturi Rus ham va hukmi davlati Bukhoroi SHarif va poytakhti davlati Rusiya ba rasmi tahniyat va saforat bo tuhaf va hadoyoi loiqa ittifoqi vurud voqe shud… Va har bore, ki mutarjim bo mo muloqot mekard, az man mepursid, ki:

-Okhir agar shere bastai, dar nazar or, to binam, ki chi mazmun guftai?

-Man gumon kardam, ki mabodo maro imtihon kunad va ojiz yobad. Dar okhir nomi domod va nomi arus pursidam.

-Guft:

Alfred va Mori… Majmu nuh harf bud. Pas nuh harfro ba avvali nuh bayt muvashshah namuda ba dastash dodam…» va gayra.

In ast, ki «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» barobari talif yak junbishi fikri, angezai zehni va barkhurdhoi mafkuraviro ba vujud ovard. Makhsusan, baroi adiboni ibtidoi asri HH. Ustod S.Ayni, ki bo in asari Ahmadi Donish dar okhiri solhoi 90-umi asri XIX shinos shuda bud, ahvoli ruhiya va taassuroti odamoni peshqadami on davrro az khondani in asar az zaboni khud chunin bayon namudaast:

«Johoi ba man tasirbakhshi «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» on joho budand, ki man on hodisahoro dar zidagi dida budam va az on ahvol diltang meshudam, ammo hej goh isloh kardan va isloh shudani on ahvol dar khotiram nameguzasht va gumon mekardam, ki dunyo hamin tarz omadaast, hamin tarz hast va hamin tarz ham meravad, chi boyad kard? Ammo vaqte ki man on ahvoli falokatishtimolro dar mundarijoti «Navodir-ul- vaqoe» bo tasviri reali, bo tasvire, ki khud dar zindagi dida budam, khondam, ba man holati digar ruy dod. Man dar dili khud guftam, ki in ahvolro isloh kardan lozim ast, modom ki man isloh karda nametavonam, az vay nafrat kardan zarur ast. Inqilobi fikri kam ham boshad, dar man ana dar hamon vaqt ruy dod».

Umuman, dar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» masalahoi siyosi: usuli mamlakatdorii Bukhoro va Rossiya, munosiboti davlat bo raiyat, maqomoti qudratii in du kishvar; masalahoi iqtisodi: ziroati budani Osiyoi Miyona va sanoati budani Rossiya; farhangi: nashri ruznomavu majallaho, nashriyotu kitobchopkuni, shahrsozi va zebu zinati khiyobonhovu gulgashtho, tolorhoi konserti va binohoi muhtasham; oroishi kushkhovu manzilhoi istiqomati, sistemai abyorii shahrho va gayra.

Dar masalahoi akhloqi va tarbiyavi boshad, baze hikoyotu bobhoi asar khele joliband. Hususan bobi panjum «Dar hikoyati faromushkhona» yo khud dar on joyhoe, ki SHukurbek shirkat varzida va u ba ahli johu mansab barkhurdhoi fikri zohir namudavu ahli zahmatro jonibdori kardani vay ba tasvir omadaand va gayra.

Dar asar andeshahoi Ahmadi Donish hamchun adibi maorifparvar dar baze bobho bisyor jolib ast. Andeshahoi adib dar hikoyat va qissahoi badei khele khub ifoda shudaast. Mutafakkir ba vositai obrazhoi badei hadafi khudro ifoda mekunad. Masalan, «Dar hikoyati Hoji va manofei safar va khislati zanon» chunin omadaast, ki mardi Bukhorie, ki ba maqsadi ziyorati Kaba safar kardaast. Navisanda dar in fasl nishon dodaast, ki az qalamravi Bukhoro ba berun baromadan va sayri olam kardan to chi andoza insonro az nigohi manavi gani megardonad. Mardi hoji hangomi safar ba Hinduston meravad, dar on jo bo shakhsoni olimu fozil suhbat mekunad, dar shahrhoi Hinduston inshoothoi sanoati, kishtihoi azimi borkashu safari va gayraro tamosho mekunad, dar shahrho ba marifatu maorif, ilmu farhang to andozae shinos meshavad. Mardi safari in peshravihoro dida, khayolan in shahrhoro ba Bukhoro muqoisa mekunad. Kuchavu khiyobonhoi pur az loy, rohhoi kaju nohamvor, imorathoi betartibi be naqsha sokhtashuda va gilin, khususan shabhangom toriku vahmnok va gayra. YO khud:

«-Mardi hoji bo husni khati khesh ba sarkori yak shahr khele maqul meshavad va on sarkor, ki aslan zabonu adabiyoti forsiro namedonist, mardi khojiro ba khidmat qabul karda, ba u puli bisyore doda, asarhoi olimoni forsu tojikro navisonda megirad. Mardi hoji dar shahr sayr mekard va bore did, ki odamoni bisyore ba labi bahr khok merekhtand va mekhostand dar on jo bande andokhta, dukonho kushoyand. Mardi hoji dar hayrat aftoda meandeshad, ki baroi yak oyo in qadar zahmat kashidan ravo boshad? Sarkor dar javob meguyad:

-Aqli shumo (mardumi Bukhoro) ba in kor namerasad va agar guem ham, dark karda nametavoned. Va moro ba dunyo ovardand, ki jahonro obod dorem va bahrhovu konho bikshoem va ajoiboti olami moddiro zohir gardonem… Millathoi gunoguni olam az jahon manfiati bisyore bardoshtand, ammo onro ba holi khud guzoshtand, nazdik bud, ki jahon kharob shavad. Nabini, ki toki angur, agar tarbiyat nakuni, har sole meva az soli guzashta kamtar medihad va okhir khushk meshavad. SHumo meva az tok mekhured, digar gam nadored, agar bekhi uro kirm zanad va sarashro sarmo».

Dar qazovati bolo naziri Ahmadi Donish ba qafomondagii Bukhoroi feodali bayon shudaast.

Dar lahzahoi bolo Bukhoroi zamoni Ahmadi Donish tasvir shuda boshad, aknun mebinem, ki Peterburg-poytakhti davlati Rossiya dar muqoisa chi guna ast. YAne Ahmadi Donish Peterburgro chi guna daryoftaast.

Ahmadi Donish mushakparoniero, ki dar jashni shohona dar Peterburg barpo gardida bud, chunin tasvir kardaast: «Va az jumlai ajoiboti on tuy yake charogone tartib doda budand dar boloi yakhbandi daryo, ki takhminan shash hazor qadam mushaki rangin dar havo sar doda budand, ki rui osmon pushida shud va havo hama az mohhoi surkhu zard va sapedu zangori pur shuda bud, to ki zarraho bar rui zamin namoyon meshud». va gayra.

CHunon ki dida meshavad, dar mamlakathoi peshrafta ahvoli mardumonash, ki nisbatan khub ast, jahonbini va munosibati mardum, sathi zinagi va tafakkuri onho digar ast. Albatta, in pesh az hama, ba sistemai siyosii davlatdori, usuli rohbari, jahonbiniyu mahorat va donishu istedodi siyosatmadoron sakht vobastagi dorad.

Bobi avvali «Navodil-ul-vaqoe»-i Ahmadi Donish chunon ki qablan ham zikr namuda budem, «Dar tahqiqi huquqi abavayn va haddi uquqi onho»-nom doshta, bobi mazkur asosan janbai nazariyavi dorad. YAne nazari Ahmadi Donish ba farzand, padaru modar, oila, odobi muoshirat, inson va jomea va gayra bayon shudaast».

Dar in bob omadaast, ki dar majlise har kas az har bobe suhbat mekardand. Baze az bedirami, jame az dushvorii kasbu ziroat, javqe az suubati rohi ishqu muhabbat. YAke meguft: Padaram jafokor ast. Digare meguft: Modaram sarosar ozor, to sukhan dar haddi huquq va meyori huquqi abavayn qaror girift. YAke meguft:

-CHun man dar iyoli padaram, agar izhori ehtiyoj kunam va dar mutolaba ibrom baram, hukm ba kufru isyoni man mekunad. Digare meguft: Dar umuri sahlatulhusul, ki kardu nokardi on dar shariatu futuvvat bazah va isme nadorad, agar iqdom namoyam, modar sadoi iqoqu ishqoq mezanad. YAke guft: Padar maro baroi infoqi yavmiya ba umuri nomashru rukhsat medihad va agar ibo kunam, ozurda meshavadu oq mekunad. Digar meguft: Modaram mutriba ast, khoharamro ba raqsu samo targib mekunad, vay mutanaffir ast, bong bar u mezanad…»

Dar muhokimaronihoi bolo munosibathoi gunoguni oilavi dar khonadoni mardumi Bukhoro dida meshavad. Padare farzandro bo bahonae bo rohi nosavob hidoyat mekunad. Modare baroi rivoji kori khud, dukhtarashro ba on roh gayri ikhtiyori farzandash burdani meshavad.

Bisyorho meshavad, ki in korhoi abavayn khilofi akhloqi islomist, vale onho in korro baroi ruzgorashon pesh megirand.

Bazan chunin ham shudaast, ki bisyor oilaho az rui talabi volidayn digar shudaand. YAne az ham judo shuda, oilahoi digar bunyod kardaand:

«-Digare istifto menamud, ki modare doram harif shuda, agar saranjomi muhimmi manzil ba modar suporam, az uhda barnameoyad, agar ba dasti zan niham, norozi ast. Va bar sari har obu taom gavgo bunyod mekunad va ziyodasariyu ziyodatalabi mekunad, to hadde, ki guyo digaronro hej haqqe namemonad, guyo hama az oni ust va baroi u. Sobiq du zan az man ba taloqu firoq ovard va dar zani seyum niz hol hamon ast, ki dar avval va duyum. Agar ba huquqi zan qiyom oram, modaram khushnud nameshavad, magar ba taloq, ki jabre ikhtiyor kunam. Man tashkhis nametavonam kard, ki rioyati kadom taraf kunam. Agar jonibi modar giram, boyad, ki az haqqi zan dast bardoram va agar tarafdorii zan kunam, boyad ki oqi modarro ikhtiyor namoyam.»

Albatta, hamai masalahoi huquqi va digar masalahoe, ki marbut ba ruzgori insonist, dar asosi qonunhoi islomi matrah, hallu fasl shudaand. Az in ru, Ahmadi Donish in masalahoro dar hamin zamina khele nozuk ba muoina megirad. U ba bahshoi dar bolo ovarda az hamin mavqe, vale na chun mutaassib, balki baso jiddi va ogoh ba kor megirad. Az in jost, ki Ahmadi Donish ba on bahs chunin hamroh meshavad:

«Guftaand: Bale, matlab hamin ast, in ishkolro az pesh bardori va haqiqati holro kamohi mutobiqi ofoqu anfus sharh dihi.

Guftam: Padaru modar mavridi ehsonu shukrand, bar taqdire, ki soleh boshand va ba farzandi khud nekikhohanda va salohi holi u juyanda, ki agar fosiq boshandu ba farzand neki namekhohand va salohi holi uro nametalaband, balki garazi khudro mejuyand, mavridi on huquq, ki dar oyotu ahodis omada nestand. Va hol on ki har yak az abavayn muddaii inand, ki mo dar hama aqvolu afol, ki az mo sodir meshavad, khayri farzandro mekhohem… YAne boyad, ki qavlu feli abavayn mufzi ba khilofi shar nashavad va dar dinu muruvvati farzand khalal nayorad, to farzand baroi daryofti rizogii onho murtakibi mahzurotu mahjurot nagarad. Masalan, baroi nafaqai onho duzdiyu qimor pesha nakunad yo baroi daryofti khushnudii modar zani solehai khudro taloq doda ba fisqu fasod va zinovu livotat nayaftad.»

YO khud agar masalahoi bolo tamoman ijtimoi boshand, dar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» masalahoi siyosi niz joi namoyon dorand. Masalan, dar bobi «Muomilai salotin ba fuqaro va raiyat»… omadaast, ki:

«.Raiyat mahalli dakhli viloyatand va askariya mavrii kharj. To dakhl nabuvad, kharj mutahaqqiq nashavad, balki saltanat be raiyat mutasavvir nagardad va raiyat be istimolatu marhamati sulton mujtame nagardad. Pas podshoh, ki mushfiqi darvesh ast, nigahboni mulku davlati khesh ast, adlu rafati sulton mujibi amnu istiqomat ast mar raiyatro, to imoratu ziroat besh ittifoq aftad. Va chun imoratu ziroat va adlu rafati sulton va arzoni balandovoza shavad, bozargonu musofiron dar in shahr ragbat orand va gallavu qumosh va digar mato biyovarand, pas mulk obodon shavad va khazoin mamur gardad. Va bad in sabab lashkariyon seru farokhdast gardand. Va chun lashkar qavi boshad, havzai millat mahfuz monad va shariat rivoj yobad.»

Doir ba donistani hududi kishvar va arzishi mintaqaho va kadom mintaqa chi doroi doshtanu holati on va dar in bora munosibati shoh bo sarzamini khud va hamjivoron hikoyati khele olijanobe az tarafi yak sayyohe va munosibati on dar mukolimae miyoni, uvu mardi avrupoi chizhoi jolib mavridi arzyobi qaror doda meshavad:

«YAke az sayyohon guft: Dar Peshovar peshi hokim budam, ki az qibali farangi farmonravo bud. Ruze ba taqrib pursid, ki Bukhoro chi miqdor zamini solehi zar dorad?

Guftam: Taqriban si farsakh sharqanu garban va ponzdah farsakh shimolanu januban.

Guft: Samarqand chand ast?

Guftam: Nisfi on.

Guft: Nasaf?

Guftam: Sulsi on.

Guft: Aksariyati dokhilii Bukhoro chand ast?

Guftam se hazor, dar vaqti oshub duvozdah hazor, ba zammi atrof bist hazor.

Guft: Mavojibi onho az kujost?

Guftam: Az ushru khiroji irtifoot.

Guft: Agar osmon naboradu zamin nadihad?

Guftam: Az julu andoz.

Guft: Agar khalq ojiz oyand va natavonand?

Guftam: Az musodarayu yargu, ki tavongaronro aftad…

Guft: Az SHumo to Badakhshon chi miqdor roh ast? Guftam: Takhminan hashtod farsakh.

Guft: Az mahkumi kist?

Guftam: Ba sari khud ast.

Guft: CHaro podshohoni shumo onro dar tasarrufi khud nameorand? Guftam: On chi zamin ast?

Bikhandidu guft: SHumo turfa mardumi betamized, joe ki zar boyad sarf kard, shumo zar metalabed va joe, ki zar ast, namejued. Badakhshon zamine ast, ki dar on chahor madan: tillo, nuqra, lalu lojuvard.

Pas, himmati podshohona on iqtizo dorad, ki zar az konu durr az bahr bitalabad va ba fuqaroyu raiyat sarf kunad, to jahonro obod dorad va ba kushodani nahrho va buridani kuhho va ziroati arozii mayita. Va kushodani kon be raiyat imkon nadorad va gayra.»

Dar qazovathoi zikrshuda mo jahonbinii shohon, masuliyatshinosii onho, usuli kishvardori, munosibat bo khalq va maqomoti davlatiro ba khubi fahmida metavonem. Mibinem, ki amironi mangiti ba juz rohi zurivu tarsonidani mardum kori digarero fikr ham nakardaand. Az in jost, ki odditarin avrupoi dar bobi kashvardori nuqsonu sustii amironi mazkurro medonad. In ast, ki nazari Ahmadi Donish niz ba in sulola khub nest va onhoro mutanaffir, kutohandeshu betamiz menomad.

CHizi digarero niz metavon takid namud, ki dar «Navodir-ul- vaqoe» mavzuhoi hamosi ham ba nazar merasand. Masalan, bobi XVIII, sarguzashti mulloi Boysuni – Holmuhammad, ki mardi shujou daler va shikorpesha ast. Rubarushavii u bo hayvonoti darrandai vahshi, misli sher, khirs va g. ki gohe bo zuri va bazan bo hilla jon ba salomat mebarad, az jasuriyu dalerii Holmuhammad shahodat medihad. Hatto aspi khudro ba boloi darakht mebardorad. YAne tahamtan ham hast.

Hamin Holmuhammad naql mekunad, ki:

«-Dar on ovon SHukurbek nom duzdi shabrav dar Bukhoro istilo yofta, base zakhimu jasim va ayyoripesha bud. Dar shab bo sad nafar muqobil shudi. Harchand dilovaroni zurozmo va bahoduroni razmoro sari rohash megiriftand, tobi muqobala nayovarda ruy ba gurez menihodand.

Bo in hama jabbori va mardumozori karampesha, olihimmat bud, ki mol az tavongaroni bakhil sitada ba mustahaqqiqoni alil rasonidi va bo ahli ilm va talabai madrasa ionoi kardi. Amir baroi uro dastgir kardan 100 dinor zari surkh ba garav monda bud.

Mullo Holmuhammad inro shunida nazdi mudarris meoyad va ijozat mepursad, ki baroi dastgir namudani SHukurbek ba u ijozat bidihad. Mudarris meguyad: Zinhor in jurat mekuni, ki poi khasmro nadida, sar ba bod dihi. Nadoni, pil shikori gavazn nashavad va sher musakhkharai ruboh nagardad:

Har ki bo fulodbozu panja kard,
Soida simini khudro ranja kard.

Hulosa, mudarrisro bovar kunonidam va u ba man ijozat dod va takid namud, ki ehtiyot kunam. Man – meguyad Mullo Holmuhammad, ba nazdi asas raftam va arzi maqsad namudam. U niz khandid. CHun uro niz bovar kunonidam, u yak miqdor pul ba man dodu guft, ki mondagiashro bad az ovardani SHukurbek megiri. Man raftam. Rohi omadani SHukurbekro aniq kardam. Uro shabongah yoftam va khostam bo kaltak ba sari u furoram, vale namedonam, ki chi shud.

Hamin qadar yod doram, ki rui sinaam kuhi garone aftida bud.. SHukurbek maqsadi maro pursid va man chizero az u pinhon nakarda rostashro guftam. U digar maro azob nadod va bo khud ba madrasai Kukaltosh, ba yake az hujrahoi on burd. U dar on jo az maqsadi man komilan ogoh shudu yak panja zari surkh ba man dod va guft, ki ba zodgohat rav. Agar bori duyum firefta shaviyu ba dastam afti, zinda namerahi.

Man chunin kardam.»

Dar in hikoyati sarguzashtii voqei SHukurbek ayyorpesha, duzd va rohzan ast. Gumon meravad, ki noadolatihoi zamona uro ba in roh burdaast. Agar u noodil mebud, barobari hujumi Mullo Holmuhammad uro bo andak zarba nobud mekard. Vale u in amalro dar nisbati yak nafar tolibilmi bebizoat ravo nadid.

Holmuhammad niz yak tan tolibilmi dilsofu poktinat, vale harisu komju ast. Az in ru, u ham az tahsil va ham az istiqomat dar Bukhoro mahrum memonad.

Obrazi SHukurbek az on jihat jolib ast, ki u ba muqobili noadolatiho mebaroyad. Onhoero, ki az hisobi istismor sohibi sarvat gardidaand, ba onho kinavarzi mekunad. Moli ba yagmo burdaashro ba tolibilmon, benavoyon, darmondagon, tangdaston taqsim menamoyad.

Umuman, «Navodir-ul-vaqoe»-i Ahmadi Donish dar adabiyoti asrimiyonagii tojik yak padida, yak bozyofti adabi ast, ki dar on ham az siyosat, az ijtimoiyotu iqtisodiyot, az ilmu farhang va az tarikhu adabiyot, az barkhurdi farhanghovu tamaddunho, az naqshi inson va jamiyat bahshoi sershumor ba miyon meorad.

U baroi peshrafti davlat, inqilobhoi fikrii mutafakkiron, ejodkoron zimomdoroni vaqt, amironi mangitiro sakht ba zeri tozyonai tanqid megirad. Barobari khondani asar dar peshi nazari khonanda shakhsiyate namudor meshavad, ki az ilmu marifat, farhangu tarikh, siyosat, usuli kishvardori, sheru adab, dinu oyin, tamaddunu hikmati milli khele va khele amiqu daqiq ogoh ast. YAne navisandai kitobi mazkur siyosat, iqtisodiyot, ilmu farhangi milliro komilan medonad. Dar barobari in, u az siyosat, iqtisodiyot va ilmu farhangi Avrupoi niz ogohi dorad. In ast, ki Ahmadi Donish mushakhkhasan Bukhoro va qalamravi onro bo Rossiya va ba in vosita bo Avrupoi Garbi to ba andozae muqoisa mekunad.

Az in jihat tanqidi Ahmadi Donish tanqidi zohiri va har chi bodobod nest! U on masalaero, ki mahkum kardani shavad, khele khub avval pahluhoi onro mesanjad, muoyina mekunad. Janbahoi noravo va nuqsondori onro darmeyobad va bo dalelhoi sershumor ba zeri tozyonai tanqid megirad.

Ahmadi Donish dar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» beshtar masalahoi khele muhimi falsafivu ijtimoiro, ki mavzui bahsi buzurgoni peshin qaror doshtand, ba miyon meguzorad. Onhoro tajdidi nazar mekunad. Az didgohi nav, az rui talabu taqozoi zamoni nav, sharoitu zaminahoi navi tarikhi ba tadqiqu mushohida megirad.

Albatta, dar ogozi sari qudrat omadanash nazari amir Muzaffar ba Ahmadi Donish digar budaast. Ahmadi Donish hayati saforati Bukhororo dar besavodiyu bedonishi muttaham namuda, onhoro kutohnazar, khudbinu khudkhoh, bemasuliyat, qafomonda menomad. Bo vujudi hamai in, amir Muzaffar khidmati Ahmadi Donishro qadr menamoyad. Az rui salohiyate, ki amir dar ikhtiyor dosht, u ba Ahmadi Donish rutbai ilmi-iftikhorii Uroqro ravo mebinad. Zero Amir borho janbai amalii mashvarathoi Ahmadi Donishro tajriba namuda, dar amaliyai munosibat bo Rossiya didavu sanjida bud.

Az in ru, ba Ahmadi Donish chand mansabi davlatiro niz peshnihod mekunad. Ahmadi Donish holati dokhilii darboru darboriyonro dida, suporishhoi amirro ba takhir meandokht. Ahmadi Donish khub medonist, ki «ba yak gul bahor nameshavad». Tanho bo omadani Ahmadi Donish ba darbor tagyiroti jiddie dar siyosat paydo nameshavad. Zero hasudonu chopluson amirro khele khub ihota kardaand.

Ahmadi Donish dar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» dar aksari bobhoi on masalahoi muhimtarini nazariyaviyu amaliro az mavqei hikmati tamaddunu taovun ba tahlilu tadqiq megirad. CHordah bobi asar (to risolai siyosi) ba masalahoi baso muhim-falsafai zindagi, hikmati amali bakhshida shudaand. Dar in faslho masalahoi jamiyati insoni, behbudii ruzgori mardum, himoyai adolati ijtimoi va rohhoi on ba rishtai tahlil kashida shudaast.

Umuman, bobhoi «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» harchand ba mavzuhoi gunogun bakhshida shudaand, muhim on ast, ki ba maqsadi yagonai muallif- yane chi guna tashkil namudani hayoti ijtimoi va shakhsiyati inson ravona karda shudaast.

Goyai asosii «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» Ahmadi Donish yak boshad ham, vale mavzuhoi bobho mukhtalifand. Dar bobhoi asar masalahoi falsafi, siyosi, ijtimoi, akhloqi, tarbiyavi, iqtisodi, ilmi va gayra bayon shudaand.

Malum ast, ki «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» barin asar nametavonad mahsuli mehnati yak yo dusola boshad. Ahmadi Donish in asarashro dar tuli nazdik ba ponzdah sol rui kor ovardaast. Vale munosibati mantiqii bobho khele qavi ast. Az tarafi digar, dar har yak bob muallif jonibdori adolati ijtimoi buda, onro payvasta jonibdoriyu himoya menamoyad. Tanho bobhoi 16-23 andak digartar buda, dar in bobho naqshi falsafa va sheru adab ziyodtar ast. Az sui digar, ashori akhloqi- tarbiyavi dar in qismat ziyodtarand. Az in ru, Ahmadi Donish ba ashori Sadii SHerozi beshtar ru ovarda, bo porahoi sheri janbahoi tarbiyavi akhloqi va talimii hikoyahoi asari khudro taqviyat medihad. In ast, ki porahoi sheri niz baroi tasdiqi andeshavu afkori muallif ovarda shudaand.

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