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Navda va mugja

Poyae, ki dar on mugja va bargho iikishof meyoband, navda nomida meshavad. Har navdai kalon az poya, bugum (band), bayniband, mugja va bargho iborat ast.

Joe, ki ba on barg payvast shudaast, band nomida meshavad. Fosilai du bandi ba ham nazdikro bayniband menomand. Aksari rastaniho du khel poya dorand: agar yake az onho baynibandi daroz doshta boshad, digarash baynibandi kutoh dorad.

Kunji bayni barg va baynibandi dar bolo joygirshudaro baga-li barg menomand. Dar bisyor holatho az har band faqat yak barg inkishof meyobad.

masalan, dar bed, javdor, oftobparast, tus va nastaran (gulkhor). Agar bargho dar poya paydarham ba tavri spirali joy girifta boshand, chunin joygirshavii bargro navbati yo spirali meguyand.

Dar rastanihoi zarang, yosuman, yos, farq, gazna dar har band dutogi barg inkishof meyobad va onho muqobili yakdigar joygirand. CHunin joygirshavii bargro dar poya joygirshavii ru ba ru yo mutaqobila menomand.

Bazan dar band se yo ziyodtar barg inkishof yofta, onho dar tarafhoi gunoguni poya halqagi (girdogird) joy giriftaand. CHunin joygirshavii halqagii barg dar chilbandi obi (elodeya), ki az se barg tashkil shudaast va dar rastanii chashmi zog dida meshavad.

Hangomi sabzishi tukhm poya az mugjai janini inkishof meyobad. Dar rastanihoi bisyorsola boshad, poya (navda) az mugja inkishof meyobad.

Aknun ba sokhti beruni va dokhilii mugjaho shinos meshavem. Az berun mugjaho bo pulakchahoi gafsi charmgun faro girifta shudaand, ki onho mugjaro az sharoithoi nomusoidi muhiti beruna (khunuki, khushkshavi) emin nigoh medorand.

Tavassuti purbin ba sokhti yake az mugjahoi ba darozi burida shuda shinos meshavem. Dar miyonajoi mugja poyai ibtidoi (janini) va dar on bargchahoi nihoyat khurdi ibtidoi namudorand. Dar bagali in bargchaho mugjachahoi ibtidoii nihoyat khurd, ki hatto bo purbin ba dushvori namudorand, joygirand. Dar qismi nugii poyachai ibtidoi konusi (nuqtai) rasish joy giriftaast, ki az boftahoi hosilkunanda iborat ast. In mushohidaho ba on dalolat mekunand, ki mugja poyai ibtidoi meboshad.

navda-mugcha

Dar natijai buridani yakchand mugjaho (ba darozi) mebinem, ki dar poyai ibtidoii baze az onho faqat bargchahoi khurdi ibtidoi dida meshavand. In guna mugjahoro mugjahoi nashvi (vegetativi) yo mugja barg meguyand. Dar dokhili bazei digari mugjaho boshad, gulgunchahoi ibtidoi (mugjahoi generativi) mavjudand. Onho nisbati mugjahoi nashvi andozai kalontar doshta, onhoro mugjahoi gulovar yo mugjagul menomand. Onho shakli mudavvar yo girda dorand.

Vobasta ba namudi rastaniho — shakl, andoza, rang, buy, pashmak va digar alomatho, inchunin az rui joygirshaviashon dar navda mugjaho khele gunogun meshavand. In khususiyathoi onhoro ba etibor girifta, metavonem hatto dar fasli zimiston ba kadom darakht va yo butta taalluq doshtani onhoro muayyan kunem. Masalan, agar dar aksari rastaniho mugjaho bevosita dar poya joygir (ni- shasta) boshand, mugjai darakhti rozdor (olkha) tavassuti dumchai makhsus ba navdaash payvast ast.

Safedorro odatan az rui mugjai nugtezi zifti chaspakdorash, ki bui forami makhsus dorad, az digar darakhton bo osoni farq mekunand. Mugjai bed faqat yakto pulakcha dorad, ki on mugjaro chun sar- pushak pushonidaast. Dar rastanii angurak (siyohbodom, krushina) boshad, mugja umuman pulakcha nadorad.

Mugjahoi kalonu darozruyai gubayro (ryabina, chetan) serpashmak buda, onro az mugjahoi digar darakhton bo osoni farq mekunand.

Mugjakhoi mahlabi rusi (cheryomukha) va qoti siyoh bui khushi makhsus dorand. Mugjahoi marjonbutta (buzina), ki ru ba ru joygir shudaand, khele badbuy meboshand. SHumo metavoned in rastanihoro tavassuti bui foram va yo noforamashon az digar rastaniho farq kuned.

  1. Navda chist?
  2. Band, bayniband chist?
  3. Dar navda mugjaho chi tavr joygir shudaand?
  4. Mugjahoi nashvi chi guna sokht dorand?
  5. Mugjagulho chi guna shakl dorand?
  6. Az rui kadom alomathoi khosi mugjaho dar fasli zimiston metavon darakhtu buttahoro shinokht? Bo misolho sharh dihed.
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