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Namoyandagoni shirkhuron

Qatori shirkhurhoi nopurralandon on qadar Namudhoi ziyod nadorand.

Namoyandagoni in qator dar Amerikai Janubi zindagi mekunand. Megatera. megalonik, lavandi mugambir (levines), murchakhurak, zirehpust namoyandahoi in qator msboshand, ki dar ruyi zamin va dar boloi darakhton zindagi karda, khurokashon qismhoi sabz va mevai rastani meboshad. Sipari bazei onho va zaboni darozashon ba khazandaho monand ast, ki in ham yak alomati filogenetikii shirkhurho bo khazandaho meboshad.

  1. Qatori shirkhurhon khoyanda. Aksariyati namoyandagoni in qator khuroki sakhti rastanigi mekhurand va onro bo dandonhon peshashon taroshida judo mekunand va bo kursiashon soida mayda mekunand. Hoyandaho dandonhoi ashki nadorand. Dandonhoi peshi onho boquvvati daroz buda, az tasiri chizi sakhtro taroshidan kund nameshavand.

Dar aksariyati khoyandaho kurrudam daroz khait, ki boqimondai khurok az tasiri mikroorganizmkhoi on khazm meshavad. Hoyandagon khele sernasland, chunki dar yak sol qobiliyati chandin bor nasl dodan dorand. Ba qatori khoyandagon sanjob, yurmon, kallamush, mush, kunduzi daryoi, ondatra (mushi oby) dokhil meshavand. Hoyandaho ham ahamiyat va ham zarar dorand. Baze az onho hayvonoti muinadori qimatbaho buda, guruhi digar zararrasoni khojagii qishlok va kisme az onho pahnkunandayu guzaronandai harguna kasalihoi khatarnoki odamu hayvonot meboshand. Hoyandagonn zararrasonro bo khamirai zakhrnok, gaz, ob, kapqon nobud kardan mumkin ast. Uqob, gurba, khorpusht dushmani asosii onho meboshand.

Rasmi 46. Hayvonoti muinador.  1 - Sanjob; 2 - Haz; 3 - Qoqui safedpust; 4 - Qoqumi gupobirang; 5 - Rubohi shimolii safedpashm; 6 - Norka, 7 - Samur; 8 - Rubohi osmonirang; 9 - Rubohi muinaash surkh; 10 - Rubohi nuqrarangi siyohtob.
Rasmi 46. Hayvonoti muinador.
1 – Sanjob; 2 – Haz; 3 – Qoqui safedpust; 4 – Qoqumi gupobirang; 5 – Rubohi shimolii safedpashm; 6 – Norka, 7 – Samur; 8 – Rubohi osmonirang; 9 – Rubohi muinaash surkh; 10 – Rubohi nuqrarangi siyohtob.

Qunduzi daryoi khoyandai kalontar buda, dar sohili daryochahoi beshazor gurukh-guruh dar khonachahoi kofta yo sokhtaashon mekunand. Onho tobiston rastanihoi sershirai obi va zimiston shokhayu pustlokhi darakhtoni pahnbargro mekhurand. Qunduzho bazan darakhthoi kalonro khoida meaftonand. Holo onhoro dar joyhoi makhsus parvarish karda, baroi muinaashon shikor mekunand.

Ondagra monandi qunduz dar sohili obanborhoi serrastani zindagi karda, dar yak sol 2-4 marotiba 6-toi bacha mezoyad. Ondat- rachaho badi yak moh az torchaashon baromada mustaqil meshavand. Badi 4-5 moh qobiliyati nasl dodan paydo mekunand. Vatani ondatra Amerikai SHimoli ast. Soli 1927 qarib 2500 sari onro ba qismi avrupoii sobiq Ittihodi SHuravi ovarda, cap doda budand.

Kallamush va mushho sernasl buda, dar osiyobho, juvozkhonaho, objuvozho, ogilkhonaho, tahkhonayu anborkhonaho va dar khonahoi istiqomati tamomi sol zindagi karda, pinhoni khurok meyoband. Onho ba khojagii odamon zarari kalon merasonand. CHubro taroshida, surokh mekunand. harguna matoyu pust va kitobhoro khoida, tavassuti khurokho kasalihoi zardcha, medayu rudaro meguzaronand.

YUrmonho dar dashtu nimbiyobonho, charogoh kishtzorho guruh-guruh shuda khonahoi zerizamini mekoband. Az andak sado bokhabar shuda, pinhon meshavand. Dar zimiston az gor berun nabaromada mekhoband. YUrmon harsol dar bahor yak marotiba nasl medihad. YUrmonho alafhoi gunoguni dashti (beshtar giehhoi khushadorro) khurda, khosili ziroati galladonagiro harkadomash az hargektar 6-8 kg nobud mekunand. Ba hisobi miyona dar har yak gektari charogoh 20-50 yurmon zindagi karda, alafhoi on joyro kam mekunand.

Sanjob muinai qimatbaho dorad. Vay rangi zebo va dumi darozi pupakmuy dorad. Tobiston muyash mallarang shuda, ba rangi tanai suzanbargho monand meshavad. Dar tiramokh boshad, muyashro partofta, muni khokistarrang mebarorad, ki dar zeri shokhahoi serbarg bazurayon megardad. Makoni vay jangalzor buda, az shokh ba shokh jahida megardad.

Hangomi jahidan bo dumash samti harakatro muayyan mekunad. Vay changolhoi tez dorad. Hurokash beshtar jalguzai karagayu sanavbar, findik va zamburug buda, baroi zimistonash ham khuroka zakhira mekunad. Sanjob dar khonachai az ushnaho sokhtaash nasl meguzorad.

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