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NOM, SHAJARA VA TAHALLUSI ADABII “Rudaki”

Qadimtarii manbai khatti, ki roje ba nom, shajara va takhallusi shoirii Ustod Rudaki khabar medihad, hamon «Kitob-ul-ansob»-i Samoni meboshad, ki nomi purrai uro ba gunai «Abuabdulloh Jafar binni Muhammad binni Hakim binni Abdurrahmon ibni Odam Rudakii shoiri Samarqandi»81 menigorad. Samoni  navishtai khudro az guftai Idrisi (vaf. 405 /1015 ) va tarbiyatgari mamduhi shoir Abulfazli Balami (vaf. 329 /940 ) giriftaast. Az in jihat, akhbori Samoni dar in bora sahehtar az gufti digaron buda, beshtar paziruftanist. Malumoti uro Ibn-al-Asir,82 Ismoil Jannatulloh ibni Aberazi al-Musallo (629 /1231), Ahmad ibni Umar al-Munayni (vaf. 1110 /1697)83 aynan takror mekunand.

Dar adabiyoti tojik nakhustin shakhse,  ki az  Ustod Rudaki zikr kardaast va navishtai u to zamoni mo rasidaast, Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandist, ki dar «Jahor maqola» menavisad: «Abuabdulloh Jafar binni Muhammad ar-Rudaki».84

Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi «Jahor maqola»-ro taqriban soli 550/1155 talif kardaast.

Malumoti digari nisbatan mufassali qadimii sharhiholie, ki az ruzgoru nasabi Rudaki akhbor medihad va to hol mahfuz mondaast, navishtai Muhammadi Avfist, ki asosi malumoti tamomi kitobhoi minbada va adabiyoti ilmi qaror giriftaast. Az hamin sabab, onro purra meovarem. Muhammadi Avfi tazkirai khud «Lubob-ul-albob»-ro soli 630/1222 nigoshtaast, ki dar on az khususi Rudaki   menavisad:  «Al-Ustod   Abuabdulloh  Jafar   ar-Rudaki    as- Samarqandi.     Rudaki  az navodiri falaki budaastu dar zumrai anom az ajoyibi ayyom. Akma bud, ammo khotirash gayrati khurshedu mah bud; basar nadosht, ammo basirat dosht; makfufe bud asrori latoif bar vay makshuf, mahzube bud az goyati lutfi tab mahbub; chashmi zohir basta dosht, ammo chashmi botin kushodavu SHahidi Balkhi dar madhi u guftaast, nazm:

Ba sukhan monad sheri shuaro,

Rudakiro sukhanash tilvi nubost.

SHoironro khahu ahsant madeh,

Rudakiro khahu ahsant khijost!

Va uro sultoni shuaro guftandi va Marufii Balkhi dar madhi u guftaast, bayt:

Az Rudaki shunidam — sultoni shoiron,

K-andar jahon ba kas magarav, juz ba fotimi!

Va Daqiqi ham dar madehi u guftaast, nazm:

Kiro Rudaki gufta boshad madeh,

Imomi fununi sukhan budu ar

Daqiqi madeh ovarad nazdi u,

CHu khurmo buvad burda suyi hajar!

Va Unsuri dar madhi u guftaast, nazm:

Gazal Rudakivor neku buvad,

Gazalhoi man Rudakivor nest!

Agarchi bikusham ba boriki ham,

Bad-in parda andar maro bor nest!

Va muvallidi u Rudaki Samarqand buvadu az modar nobino omada; ammo chunon zakivu tezfahm bud, ki dar hashtsolagi Quron tamomat hifz kardu qiroat biyomukhtu sher guftan girift va maonii daqiq meguft, chunon ki khalq bar on iqbol namudu ragbati u ziyodat shud; va uro Ofaridgori taolo ovoze khushu savte dilkash doda budu ba sababi ovoz dar mutribi aftoda bud va az Abubakri Bakhtiyor, ki dar on sanat sohibikhtiyor bud, barbat biyomukhtu dar on mohir shudu ovozai u ba atrofu aknofi olam birasidu amir Nasr binni Ahmad as-Somoni, ki Amiri Huroson bud, uro ba qurbati hazrati khud makhsus gardonidu korash bolo giriftu sarvatu nimati u ba haddi kamol rasid, chunon ki guyand, uro duvist gulom budu jahorsad shutur dar zeri bunai u meraftu bad az vay hech shoirro in maknat nabudaastu in iqbol ruy nadoda; va chunin guyand, v-al-uhdatu ila-r-rovi, ki ashori u sad daftar baromadaastu qaloidi qasoidi u mashhun ast ba faroidi favoid va misdoqi on sukhan ustod Rashidi guftaast, nazm:

Gar sari yobad ba olam kas ba nekushoiri,

Rudakiro bar sari on shoiron zebad sari!

SHeri uro man shumurdam sezdah rah sad hazor,

Ham fuzun oyad, agar, chandon ki boyad, bishmari!

Va yake az juhhol dar nazmi u tane kardu aroisu nafois va tavoifi latoifi uro tazyiq namud, Nizomii Aruzi in bayt dar haqqi u insho kard, sher:

Ay on ki tan kardi dar sheri Rudaki,

In tan kardani tu zi jahlu zi kudakist!

K-on kas, ki sher donad, donad, ki dar jahon

Sohibqironi shoiri Ustod Rudakist!

Va agarchi sheri u az haddu adad mutajoviz ast, ammo on chi in majmu onro ihmol kunad, sabt aftod, dar madhi Nasr ibni Ahmad meguyad dar asnoi qasida, sher:

Hotami Toyi tuyi andar sakho,

Rustami Daston tuyi andar nabard!

Ne, ki Hotam nest bo judi tu rod,

Ne, ki Rustam nest dar jangi tu mard!»84

Badan Muhammadi Avfi 27 bayt ashori digari az jihati mavzu, muhtavo va mazmun gunoguni ashori Ustod Rudakiro iqtibos meorad, ki baroi mo durri noyoband.

Nuktai jolibi zikr on ast, ki az qarni 9 hijri (asri XIV melodi) sar karda bisyore az muallifoni tazkiravu tarikhu farhangnomaho, misli Davlatshohi Samarqandi, SHerkhoni Ludi, SHaykh Abulqosimi Kozaruni, Lutfalibeki Ozar, SHamsuddini Somi va bazei digar shoiri moro Abulhasan Rudakii Samarqandi yo Bukhoroyi meguyand, ki ba sababi dar monobei qadimatar nayomadani chunin kuniyai Ustod Rudaki qobili qabul nestand. Faridaddin zikr namudani kuniyai Rudaki az tarafi Amin Ahmadi Rozi, Hoji Halifa, Volai Dogistoni va amsoli onho niz ishtibohe besh nameboshad. Mo nomu nasabi Rudakiro ba tavre, ki muallifi «Kitob-ul-ansob» Samoni zikr mekunad, mepazirem: «Abuabdulloh Jafar ibni Odam Rudakii Samarqandi». Rudaki va Rudakro bo «zol» sabt kardan boshad, shakli talaffuzi tarikhii in navi vojahost.

Rudakiro mardum bo sheri poki u meshinokhtand va shoyad ba shakhsiyatu vaqoei zindagi va kadom sanatu vazne navishta shudani ashoru chi nav iboravu istilohu vojai makhsusro istifoda burdani  u  kore ham  nadoshta  boshand. Muhimtar az hama, sukhani nobi u

baroyashon hamdamu marham bud.

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