Home / Gunogun / NIGOHE BA TARIHI SIYOSII DAVRONI RUDAKI

NIGOHE BA TARIHI SIYOSII DAVRONI RUDAKI

Asrhoi IX—X az bisyor jihathoi iqtisodi, siyosi, jamiyati, ilmi va madani dar tarikhi khalqi tojik maqomi makhsuse dorand. CHunon ki az tarikhnomaho malum ast, arabho solhoi 636—637 Eronro zabt kar­da, toraft ba Hurosonu Movarounnahr nazdik meshudand. Nihoyat, soli 651 Marv, soli 709 Bukhoro va soli 712 Samarqandro istilo namudand, vale aholii in sarzaminho hamesha muborizai ziddi arabhoro davom medodand. Muborizahoi dusadsolai ozodikhohi va istiqloliyattalabii khalqhoi Hurosonu Movarounnahr bar ziddi istilogaroni arab, khususan khurujhoi ahli Sugd (720—722), qiyomi Abumuslim (747—755), isyoni Muqanna (750—783), shurishi khalqhoi Movarounnahr (806 — 810) va amsoli onho ba tashkil yoftani davlathoi mustaqili mutamarkazi khalqi tojik ovarda rasondand, ki dar sari onho namoyandagoni ashrofi mahalli meistodand.

Tashakkuli khalqi tojik, ki az qadimtarin khalqhoi jahon, makhsusan Movarounnahru Huroson ast, khele peshtar az istiloi arab, hanuz az asri V shuru shuda, dar ravandi muboriza bo ajnabiyon yagonagii sarzamin va umumiyati siyosiyu iqtisodivu madanii khalqi yagonaro tashkil doda, jarayoni durudarozi tarikhii tashakkulash dar hamon zamon purra surat girift. 7

Sanadhoi tarikhi shahodat medihand, ki dar ravandi  muboriza  bo  dushmanoni  ajnabi,  hifzi yagonagii  sarza­min va umumiyati siyosiyu iqtisodivu madani ajdodi asosii khalqi tojik—sugdiyonu bokhtariho ba ham omezish yofta,  khalqi  yagonaro  tashkil dodand. Onho  az  nimai  avvali asri IX sar karda khudro «tojik» va zabonashonro «forsii    dari»  menomidagi  shudand.  Tasisi  davlati nimmustaqili Tohiriyon  (821—873), davlathoi    mustaqili   mutamarkazi  Safforiyon   (873—903)   va  davlati muqtadiri    Somoniyon   (875—999)  dar    Movarounnahru  Huroson istiqloli siyosi va adabii khalqi tojikro tamin kard. Somoniyon khudro az avlodi Bahromi CHubina medonistand.  Boboi   Somoniyon   mehtari   Somon nom dehae dar nazdikii Tirmiz va yo Balkh bud, ki uro Somonkhudot meguftand.

Aglabi tarikhnigoron Somoniyonro az avlodi Bahromi CHubina donand ham, dar «Kitob-ul-ansob»-i Samoni khabar doda meshavad, ki Somoniyon az avlodi shohanshohi mashhuri Sosoni Bahromi Gur (421—428) meboshand. Ba har hol, tarikhnigoroni SHarq Somonihoro az ashrofzodagoni eroninajodi oriyoyitabor medonistand. ki az hama muhim ast.

Ba gufti L.Bosvort, dar kitobi «Honadonhoi shohoni musulmon» zikr shudaast, ki «sarsilsilai in khonadon Somonkhudot, yane hokimi Somon, aslan Arkok nom doshta, yak zamon dar Fargona mezistaast va hamon vaqtho az keshi boboii khud — zardushti bargashta, ba islom mepayvandadu dar ahdi khalifai Mamun (813—833) hokimi viloyati Balkh tayin megardad. U dar nazdikii Tirmiz, nohiyai Samarqand va yo Balkh, dehai Somonro mesozad» 8. Somonkhudot, guyo, az on deha baromada boshad. Ammo gufti saheh on ast, ki in dehqon, yane zamindori kalon, sarvatmand, sohibdavlat az Istaravshan buda, «malikai Oli Somon az farzandoni Bahromi CHubina buda, ki hama Movarounnahru Hurosonro dar zeri farmon doshtand va binoi adlu insof dar on navohi gustaronidand»9.

Hamin khonadon silsilai Somoniyon (819—1005) va davlati mutamarkazi Somoniyonro (875—999) tashkil dod. Sohibi khonavoda Somonkhudot dini mubini islomro pazirufta, chun gumoshta baroi khilofati arab khidmat kard. Ba ivazi khidmathoi u  chahor naberaash dar zamoni khalifa Al-Mamun ibni Horun Ar-Rashid (813— 833) zimomi hokimiyati Hurosonu Movarounnahrro ba ikhtiyori khud giriftand. Az onho Nuh ibni Asad (819—842) hokimi Samarqand tayin gardida, Ahmad ibni Asad (842—864) dar Fargona, YAhyo dar CHochu Usrushana va Ilyos (vaf. 857) dar Hirot hokim tayin shuda, dar khidmati khalifa nom barovardand. Soli 875m./261h.  Nasr ibni Ahmad, ki chun Nasri avval ibni Ahmad (864—897) mashhur ast, amiri Movarounnahr tayin gardida, istiqloli hokimiyati khudro elon kard. Hanuz Nuh ibni Asad dar Istaravshan dar mulki YAhyo sikka zada, bad az vafoti Nuh (842) ba nomi khud puli siyoh (fulus) sikka zad.

Movarounnahri gani markazi davlati Somoniyon qaror girift. Muhofizati rohhoi saforatu tijorati Movarounnahr az dasti rohzanoni turkhoi butparast niz ba uhdai Somoniho guzoshta shud. Az ahli in khonadon khidmatu maqomi mardi shujo, lashkarkashi nomvar va siyosatmadori botadbir Ismoil dar istiqloli kishvar base buzurg ast.

To soli 874 Bu­khoro ba Somoniyon taalluq nadosht. Hamon sol Ismoil ba on mulk sohib gasht, vale ayonu ashrofi Bukhoro uro etirof nakardand. Ismoil bo niruyi aqlu zakovat, narmivu khushzaboni va makru hiyal hokimiyati khudro dar Bukhoro ustuvor karda, az itoat ba Nasr sar kashid va tamomi daromadi in viloyati pursarvatro azoni khud namud.10

Bo igvoi notavonbinho va dastae hosidu amaldor dar bayni barodaron nizo barkhost va zadukhurdi durudaroze davom kard. Soli 886 Ismoil az Nasr sakht shikast khurda, az qoyimmaqomii Bukhoro dur karda shud, vale dar nabardi soli 888 piruz gardida, Nasrro asir girift. Lekin   uro   ba   qatl   narasonida,  hamon  amiri  Movarounnahr    boqi guzoshta, khud dar Istaravshan istiqomatu hokimiyat namuda, ba nomi u tangai misin (fulus) sikka mezad. U, hamchunon, muzofoti SHimoli Movarounnahru Fargonaro qatan ba jahoni islom payvasta, soli 283h./893 m. ba mulki qarluqho dar dashthoi kanori Sirdaryo hujum ovarda, poytakhti onho shahri Talasro ba khok yakson kard va tamomi doroyiashro ba chang darovard. Az quvvai harbii Ismoili Somoni harosida, shabokhunzani va goratgarii turkon dar rohhoi korvonguzari Osiyoi Miyona qarib ba nesti rasida, gulomonu bardahoi turk qarib ba tamomi mamoliki islomi burdavu furukhta meshudand va az hisobi onho safi lashkariyoni hokimoni on kishvarho meafzud. Halifai arab in piruzihoi Ismoili Somoniro tahammul karda nametavonist. Az in ru, hokimi vaqti Huroson Amr ibni Laysi Safforiro ba jangi muqobili Ismoil ba Bukhoro firistod. Soli 900 Ismoil peshravonro musallah namuda, dar nazdikii Bukhoro Amr ibni Laysro maglub sokhta, khonadoni Safforiyonro az bayn burda, Sistonro ba qalamravi Somoniyon ilqo namud va hokimiyati khudro dar Huroson barqaror sokht. Soli 892 Nasri 1 ibni Ahmad favtid va Amorati Bukhoro ba ikhtiyori Ismoili Somoni guzasht. Soli 905 zimomi hokimiyati kishvari Huroson niz ba ikhtiyori u daromad.

Ismoil poytakhti mamlakatro soli 892 az Samarqand ba Bukhoro kuchonida, to soli 907 chun amiri Huroson, ki Movarounnahru Sistonu Horazmu Badakhshonro niz faro megirift, boqi mond. Inchunin, Gurgonu Tabariston va Rayu Qumishro niz ba tobeiyati khud darovarda, turkonro ham sar kubid va baze az diyori turkonro ba qalamravi khud payvast. Nihoyat, Amir Is­moil 15  safari soli 295 hijri dar Bukhoro vafot kard.

Bad az margi Amir Ismoil pisari u – Nasr Ahmad ibni Ismoil ba takhti saltanat nishast, ki misli padarash adolatparvaru boinsof bud, vale dar ahdi u yakbora dar chand viloyat shurish barkhost. Hokimoni Samarqandu Rayu Siston isyon bardoshtand. Husayn ibni Alo beshtari viloyati Gurgonu Tabaristonro girift. Bo mashaqqati ziyod shurishi Sistonro pakhsh kardand. Ammo hangomi shikor Nasr ib­ni Ahmadro gulomoni turk ba qatl rasonidand, ki bad-in sabab in podshohi Somoniro «Amiri SHahid» meguyand.

Davroni podshohii Amir Abunasri Ahmad ibni Ismo­il hamagi 6 solu 4 mohu 5 ruz, az 15 safari soli 295 h. to 21 jimodiyulokhiri soli 301 h. (907—914 m.) davom kard.

Ba qavli tarikhnigoron, gulomoni turk binobar on Ahmad ibni  Ismoilro kushtand, ki vay hamesha bo donishmandon menishast va bo sarkardagoni turk kamtar iltifot mevarzid.11 Bar zammi in, shakhsi khudkhohu    badkhue bud.

Pas az kushta shudani Ahmad ibni Ismoil takhti saltanat ba dasti Nasr ibni Ahmad guzasht, ki on vaqt 8- sola bud. Qabl az hama, vaziri u Abuabdullohi Jayhoni tarbiyati uro ba uhdai khud girift. Jayhoni mardi  olimu  botadbire  bud,  chun  tarikhnigor  va  jugrofidon shuhrat dosht. Ba gufti Gardezi, Abuabdullohi Jayhoni chun bar masnadi vazorat binishast, «ba hama mamoliki jahon noma navishtu rasmhoi dargohhovu devonho bikhost, to nuskhat kardandu ba nazdiki u ovardand. Viloyati Rumu Turkistonu Hindustonu CHin va Iroqu SHomu Misru Zaranj za Zobulu Kobulu Sindu Arab hama rasmhoi jahon ba nazdiki u ovardand va on hama nuskhatho pesh binihod va andar on nek taammul kard va har rasme, ki nekutaru pisandidatar bud, az on jo bardoshtavu on chi nositudatar bud, bigzoshtu on rasmhoi nakuro bigiriftu farmud, to hama ahli dargohu devoni hazrati Bukhoro on rasmhoro istemol kardandi va bar royu tadbiri Jayhoni hama kori mamlakat nizom girift.»12

Abulfazli Balami va Abulfazli Nishopuri niz chun vazironi Nasr dar ravnaqi kishvar, inkishofi ilmu farhang va boloburdi iqtisodi mamlakat hissai sazovor meguzoshtand.

Bino bar akhbori Hoja Abulfazl Muhammad ibni Husayni Bayhaqi, Nasr ibni Ahmad az kudaki az khud osori davlatmadori qavidastero zohir mekunad. Bayhaqi menavisad: «Va chunon khondam dar akhbori Somoniyon, ki Nasri Ahmadi Somoni hashtsola bud, ki az padar bimond, ki Ahmadro ba shikorgoh bikushtandu digar ruz on kudakro bar takhti mulk binshondand ba joyi padar. On sherbacha malikzodae sakht neku baromad va bar hama odobi muluk sazovor shudu behamto baromad. Ammo dar vay sharoratevu rioyatevu satvatevu hashmate ba ifrot budu farmonhoe azim medod az sari khashm, to mardum az vay darramidandu bo in hama ba Hartang ju kardivu medonist, ki on akhloqi sakht nopisandidaest.

YAk ruz khilvate kard bo Balami, ki buzurgtarin vaziri vay bud, va Butayyibi Musabii  sohibdevoni risolat va har du yagonai ruzgor budand  dar  hamai  advoti  fazl va holi  khesh bitamomi bar on du guft:

 — Man medonam, ki in ki    az man meravad, khatoe buzurg ast, valekin bo khashmi khesh barnaoyamu chun otashi chashm binishast, pushaymon meshavam va chi sud dorad, ki gardanho zada boshandu khonumonho bikandavu chubi beandoza ba kor burda?! Tadbiri in kor chist?

Eshon guftand:

— Magar savob on ast, ki Hudovand nadimoni khiradmandtar istonad peshi khesh, ki dar eshon bo khiradi tamom, ki dorand, rahmatu rafatu hilm boshadu dasture dihad eshonro, to be hashmat, chunki Hudovand dar khashm shavad ba ifrot, shafoat kunandu ba talattuf on khashmro binishonandu chun nekuyi farmoyad, on chizro dar chashmi vay bioroyand, to ziyodat farmoyad. CHunon donem, ki chun bar in jumla boshad, in kor ba saloh bozoyad.

Nasri Ahmadro in ishorat sakht khush omadu gufti eshonro pisandidu ihmod kard bar on chi guftand.»

Minbada, muvofiqi hamin qarordodi odilonavu olimona, farmonhoi dar sari khashm medodagii podshohro faqat badi se ruz ba ijro merasondagi meshavand, ki az royu tadbiri khubi vazir Balami va sohibdevoni risolat Abutayyibi Musabi darak medihad.

Dar zamoni Nasr ibni Ahmad muonidini Oli Somon aglab sarkub meshavand. Nakhust barodarzodai Nasr ibni Ahmad Mansur ibni Ishoq soli 914 dar Samarqand isyon bardosht. Sipas, avval dar Hirotu bad dar Nishopur, shurish ba amal omada, Husayn ibni Alii Marvazi ba harakati qarmati sarvari mekard. Zamindori kalon Ahmad ibni Suhayl shurishi Husayni Marvaziro furu shinonda, Husaynro asir girift. Badan khudash alayhi Somoniyon shurish bardosht. Lekin hamai isyonu shurishkho bo zuri pakhsh karda meshudand. Ba har hol, Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni besh az si sol podshohi karda, borho ba shahrhoi gunoguni mamlakat safarho kardaast. Bore, hangomi oromu osoyishta budani kishvar, ba Hirot rafta, on jo chahor sol memond, ki Ustod Rudaki  bo surudani qasidai «Buyi Juyi Muliyon» uro ba bozgashtan ba Bukhoro tashviq kard. Boz u bori digar, soli 318 h., ba Hirot rafta, yak ruz dar on jo bimonda, soli 320 h. ba Huroson tashrif ovard. Nihoyat, dar okhiri umri u harakati ismoiliho tahti unvoni «Junbishi qarmatiya» avj girifta, mamlakatro base noorom gardondu dar natija khudi Nasr ibni Ahmad kham az takhtu toj mahrum karda shud.

Alloma Bobojon Gafurov barhaq qayd menamoyad, ki «dar zarfi tamomi davroni hukumati Somoniyon muborizai hokimiyati markazi bar ziddi qasdhoi markazgurezi molikoni judogonai feodali qat nagardid. Na Ismoili Somoni va na vorisoni u, bo vujudi muborizahoi shadide, ki baroi mustahkam namudani hokimiyati mutamarkaz burdand, usuli mamlakatdorii markaziyatnokro dar bisyor mahalho va kanoru gushahoi Osiyoi Miyona jori karda natavonistand. Viloyathoi Horazm, CHagoniyon, Hatlon va gayra dar hayati hukumati Somoni boshand ham, hokimoni onho mustaqilona hukmroni mekardand.»14

Dar ahdi Nasri Soni (914—943) niz janghoi baynikhudi va nizohoi jahontalabi hamon davom mekard. Ba gayr az shurish va isyonhoi zikrshuda, dar Hutal Jafar ibni Abejafar ba Nasr ibni Ahmad shurid. Soli 321h. dar Gurgon isyon barkhost, soli 323 h. Nasr ibni Ahmad bo Vashmgir jangid, soli 324 h. Mokon ibni Koki dar Gurgonu Sarakhs va Isfaroinu Nishopur khuruj kard. Soli 329 h. Mokon ibni Koki kushta shud. «Ba hamin tariq, dar davomi saltanati Amir Ismoil qalamravi Somoniyon ba khubi markaziyat paydo namuda, ba iqtidori buzurgi siyosivu mamuri va harbi sohib megardad va khoki on az Ray sar karda to Turkistoni SHarqi vusat paydo mekunad.

Bad az margi Ismoili Somoni, dar zamoni saltanati aksariyati vorisoni u – Ahmad ibni Ismoil (908—914), Nasr ibni Ahmad ibni Ismoil  (914— 943),  Nuh ibni Nasr  (943—955),  Abdulmalik  ibni  Nuh (955—962) va Mansur ibni Nuh (962—977) khoki davlati Somoniyon besh az zamoni Ismoili Somoni vusat paydo nakarda, muborizahoi dokhilii siyosi — isyonhoi feodali va shurishhoi khalqi iqtidori hukumati markaziro khele sust gardonida boshad ham, tavonoii davlat davom mekunad. Tanho az zamoni saltanati Nuh ibni Mansur (977—997) sar karda tanazzuli davlati Somoniyon sar meshavad. Dar muddati hukmronii in namoyandai khonadoni Somoni dav­lat beshtar iqtidori khudro az dast doda, nihoyat dar soli 999, dar natijai muqobiliyathoi siyosii dokhili va hujumhoi khoriji, az bayn meravad.»15

«Movarounnahr, — meguyad Jayhoni, — az jumlai viloyathoi khushtaru bonemattar ast, mardoni on basalomattar… Har taome, ki az on chora naboshad, dar Movarounnahr boshad. Obhoi eshon khushtaru sabuktari obhostu dar hama kuhho, sahroho, shahrhoi eshon ob astu jorpoyon az gusfandu gov, kharu ushtur, chandone, ki eshonro kifoyat buvad, az zamin hosil shavad. Gusfandon niz az Miyonu Gazonu Harlukhon meorand.»16 Jomaho pakhtagi, qaz(z), suf. Dar kuhhoi on zaru nuqra, simobu ohan, misu navshodir ziyod buda, kogaz farovon ast. Gulomu barda az shahrhoi Turkiston meorand. Bukhorovu Samarqand gavhari Movarounnahr meboshand. SHahrhoi digari on Hujandu SHosh, Tirmizu CHagoniyon khele obodu seraholi bud.

CHun Somoniyon dar lashkari khud gulomoni turkro beshtar jam ovarda, ba onho etimodi ziyode doshtanl, gulomoni turk dar umuri kishvar nufuzi bisyor ham qavi paydo karda budand. Ulamovu udabo niz dar khidmati khud kanizakonu gulomoni turki bisyor doshtand, ki bo onho chun mol muomila mekardand. «Kanizakoni tur­ku Sindu Hind ham dar dastgohi umaro va rijolu mardumi sarvatmand va dar haramsaroi onon ba sar meburdand va taban az omezishi mardumi Eron bo onon ikhtilote dar nasl hosil meshud. Dar avokhiri ahdi Somoniyon iddae az in gulomon, ki ba marotibi oli rasida budand, dar dastgohi davlati ba sar meburdandu qismate az igtishoshoti avokhiri ahdi Somoni muvallidi dasoisi haminon budu in gulomon ham mumkin bud bad az vusul ba marotibi buzurgi khud gulomone bikharand, chunonki Abutegin hangome ki az Huroson berun meraft, du hazoru haftsad gulomi turk dosht».

Hamin gulomon budand, ki yake az sababhoi barham khurdani davlati Somoniyon gardidand. Sulton Mahmudi Sabuktegin aslan gulomzoda bud. Nizoi najodii turku tojik ham az hamin asr sar zada bud.

Dar hamin davra, bo tasiri ehyoi rasmu odat va muqaddasoti niyogon, adabiyoti navini khalqi tojik ba vujud omada, ba poyahoi balandi taraqqi rasid. Somoniho ba vositai ravnaq dodani pakhtakoriyu abreshimparvari  dar  vohahoi  Marvu  Zarafshon,  charmgari   dar  Bukho- rovu Samarqand, Nasafu  Kesh,  bofandagi  dar  in  shahrho,  istehsoli shisha, rivoji ilmu hunar, dehqoni,  bogdori,  jorvoparvari, kandani koni angisht dar Isfara, chuyanu tillo dar Panjakent, surma dar Fon, koftani korezho va barovardani juyho mamlakatro khele obod kardand. Hunari dastii ahli Urganju Fargona bo konhoyashon khele mashhur budand.

Somoniho zabtkor nabudand. Bo Hindu CHin, Bulgoru Rus, Armanu Rum va gayra munosibathoi khubu hasanai tijorati doshtand. Kogazi Samarqand dar kishvarhoi dur ham malum bud.

Barhaq, dar istiqlol ba dast ovardan va mustahkam gardidani   davlati  Somoniyon, ki Huroson nom dosht,    sahmi   Ismoili    Somoni (892—907)   khele buzurg  ast. Nomi u Abuibrohim  Ismoil ibni Ahmad ast, ki  soli 849 zoida shudaast. Vay marde    botadbiru shujo bud. Avval dar khizmati barodarash Nasr buda, az nomi u dar Bukhoro hukmroni  mekard.  Vale    podshohi  rasmii  Somoniyon    Nasri yakum ibni Ahmad (250—279/864—892) bud, ki poytakhti on Samarqand ba shumor meraft. Ba    qavli Jayhoni, «khoki Samarqand khushtarini khokhostu mardumash tandurusttar. Binohoi eshon az khishtu chub va mardumoni on ohistavu halimu bojamolu ziraku bomuruvvatu javonmard. Joyi jam ovardani  bardagon  Movarounnahru  bihtarin bardagoni Movarounnahr parvardai Samarqand boshand»  (iqtibos az navishtahoi akademik Ahror Mukhtorov).

Said Nafisi  qayd  mekunad, ki «aslan iyoloti Samarqand eroni budaastu ba hamin jihat tamaddunu zaboni umumii mardumi Samarqand bar soyiri aqvome, ki dar advori bad omadand, bartarivu peshi dorand. Tamomi rustoivu savdogarivu sanoei Samarqand  ba  dasti hamin tojikon  astu makhsusan tojikoni Bukhoro dar dinu oyini bostonii ajdodi kheshu rusumi niyokoni khud shuhraandu az qadim bad-in khuy mumtoz budaand».17

Mahz Ismoili Somoni dar Bukhoro shuru isyonhoi  amironu hokimoni sarkashro sarkub namuda, davlati markaziyatyofta tashkil doda, badi amiri kulli Huroson shudan poytakhtro ba Bukhoro kuchond.

Ba gufti Said Nafisi, «najodi eroni pesh az tarikh dar in navohi (yane Sugd — A. A.) zistaastu az on jo ba Eroni imruz omadaastu qatan shahri buzurg padid omadavu dar zamoni pesh az islom du shahri buzurgi iyoloti Sugdiyon Samarqandu Bukhoro budaand. Umaroi Oli Somon nakhust dar Samarqand ba junbishi buzurgi millii Eron dar qarni savum (asri IX melodi — A. A.) ogoz kardandu hamin, ki neru giriftand, az Samarqand ba Bukhoro raftandu to budand, har du shahr ba dasti eshon bud. Rudaki  niz chun umaroi Oli  Somon  az  Samarqand barkhostu chun  neru gurift, ba Bukhoro raft».

Vale dar solhoi okhiri mavjudiyati khud davlati Somoniyon, az sababi ikhtilofhoi shadidi sinfi, muqobiliyati quvvahoi markazgurez bo hukumati markazi, raqobathoi avlodii namoyandagoni somoni baroi ba dast ovardani toju takht, adovati ahli darbor va kormandoni devonho, fitnai sarkardagoni turk, rivoj giriftani taassubi dini khele zaif gardid. Bo vujudi hamai in, Ahmad ibni Ismoil (907—914), Nasr ibni Ahmad (914—943), Nuh ibni Nasr (943—954), Abdumalik ibni Nuh (954—961), Abdulloh ibni Nuh (962 — 976) tavonistand davlatro muddate nigah dorand.

Ammo ikhtilofho asosu bunyodi onro toraft zaif megardondand. Dar nihoyati hol, dav­lati purquvvati yak vaqtho shuhratmandu ovozador ba darajae notavon shud, ki natavonist ba hujumi dushmanoni khoriji muqobilat nishon dihad. Soli 992 dastai bodiyanishinoni turk, ki Qarakhoniho nom doshtand, Bukhororo zabt kardand. Amiri Somoni Nuhi II (976— 997) bo yorii Mahmudi Gaznavi onhoro az kishvar dur andokht. Ammo soli 999 Bukhoro tamoman ba dasti Qarakhoniho guzasht. Bo hamin davlati muqtadiri Somoniyon bad az 124 soli saltanatash az miyon raft.

Ahamiyati davlati markaziyatyoftai Somoniyon az on iborat bud, ki taraqqiyoti shahrhoro ba avji alo rasond. Marv besh az 200 000 aholi dosht. Bukhoro bo Bagdod musobiqa mekard (Imruz ba har hole Bagdod Bukhorost — Kujo miri Huroson ast, piruzi on jost!). Ba qavli Saolabi, «Bukhoro dar zamoni davlati Somoniyon mavzei azamat, kabai mulk, mahalli jamomadi donishmandoni darajai avvali zamon va tulugohi sitoragon – buzurgoni adabi ruyi zamin va markazi fuzaloi dahr bud» 19.

Bukhoro duvozdah farsakh bar duvozdah far­sakh buda, bozorhoi farokh dosht. Dar borai viloyati Bu­khoro, ki makoni paydoishi Bukhorkhudotho va Somoniyon bud, Said Nafisi menavisad: «SHahri Bukhoro dar miyoni jilgae voqe shuda, ki nazdiki duvistu haftod hazor jaribi murabba masohat dorad. Az yak taraf ba kuhistoni Pomir, az tarafi digar ba sahroi Registon va az suyi digar ba rudi Jayhun payvastaast. Az suyi shimol in jilga ba atrofi Samarqand mepayvandad, az suyi mashriq ba Dashti Fargona va az suyi janub ba jilgai CHagoniyon va az jonibi magrib ba Dashti Horazm. In jilga dar mashriq kuhistonestu az magrib dashte hamvor astu qismati hosilkhezi on beshtar dar mashriqu dar domanai kuhistonu dar kanori rudbor astu ba hamin jihat az qadim in nohiya markazi  umdai ziroat dar  atrofi Bukhoro  budaast.

Kuhistoni sharqii Bukhoro dunbolai kuhhoi Pomir astu silsilae az on ba ismi Jiboli Hisor dar miyoni jilgai Bukhorovu jilgai Samarqand    hoyil  shudaastu rudi Zarafshonro az rudi Jayhun judo mekunad.»20

        Mavqei viloyati Bukhororo nameshavad az in mufassaltaru vozehtar ba qalam ovard. Dar in sarzamin    az ziroat galla,  pakhta (punba),  mahsuloti  polezivu bustoni,  kharbuzai  oli,  zardolu,  olu,  shaftolu,    nok, bihi,   anor,  pista,  chormagz   (girdakon),  tarbuz,  angur farovon hosil meshudu qisme az on ba viloyathoi digar, to Bagdodu Basra, barovarda meshud. CHorvodori va domparvari   niz   taraqqi   karda,   parvarishi govu   gusfand,   buzu mesh, aspu kharu ushtur va amsoli inho rivoj dosht. Pus­ti qarokuli Bukhoro dar jahon mashhur bud. Porchahoi abreshimu pashmu pakhta, makhmal, mohut, qoliyu gilem, masnuoti ohangarivu zargari, kuloli, shishagari — in ast nomguyi  nopurrai  ganovati onruzai  Bukhoro. Dar haqiqat, Bukhoro shahri savdovu tijorat bud,  ki dar on  yahudiyon niz shirkat mevarzidand va sahmi kalonero sohib budand. Mardumi  Bukhoro ba  rostguyi,  mehmonnavozi  va  odobu akhloqi shoyista mashhur budand. Nahru juyho, bogistonu ziroatgohhoi  shahru  navohi    va  korezho    zaminhoi mazruotro shodob megardondand.

Samarqand niz    ba Bukhoro shabohat dosht. Faqat obu havoyash mutadiltaru foramtar bud. Masojidu madrasahoi Bukhorovu Samarqand khele ziyod  budand.  Ammo dar  Samarqand nasroniyon niz budand, ki dar rustoi SHovzor zista, bo nomi Vazgard obodii makhsuse doshtand. Bukhorovu Samarqand chun dilu sari viloyati buzurgi Sugd ba shumor meraftand.

Somoniho tashakkuli khalqi tojikro ba nihoyat rasonda, istiqloli milli va adabii onro tamin namudand. Tavajjuhi khosi onho ba zabonu adabiyoti  khalqi   khud  boisi  ravnaq  yoftani   madaniyati  khalqi mo shud. Dar in bobat khizmati Ustod Rudaki  baso buzurg bud.

Az ibtidoi asri XI sar karda, badi barham khurdani davlati Somoniyon, dar bayni tojikon, ki ommai asosii aholii kishvarro tashkil medodand, judoyi aftod. Sarzamini yagonai onho taqsim gardida, khudashon ba davlathoe tobe shudand, ki hokimonashon ajnabiho budand. Ammo khalqi sharafmandu ejodkori tojik hej goh nameguzosht, ki  madaniyatash tamoman ba khok yakson shavad. Baraks, istilogaronro az jihati marifatu madaniyat ba khud tobe megardond.

In vaziyat besh az 900 sol davom karda, khalqi tojik, nihoyat, soli 1924, sohibi jumhurii hamnomi khud gardida, soli 1991 komilan mustaqil shud.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

1pifagor0

Hakim va johil

Hakime, ki bo juhhol daraftod, tavaqqui izzat nadorad va agar johile ba zabonovari bar hakime …