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NAZARIYAI KOATSERVATI (QATRAGI)

Muallifi in nazariya biokhimiki mashhuri rus, akademik A.I.Oparin meboshad. Badtar, novobasta az A.I.Oparin olimi anglis J.Holdeyn niz ba chunin khulosa omad. Oparin aqida dosht, ki guzarish az evolyutsiyai khimiyavi ba biologi hatman paydoishi sistemahoi moddahoi judogonai individualiro taqozo mekunad. Onho, ehtimol, qobiliyati onro doshtand, ki bo muhiti beruna yakjoya amal karda, modda va energiyai onro istifoda barand, binobar in, inkishof meyoftand, ziyod meshudand va duchori intikhobi tabii megashtand.

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Taqsimshavii abiotikii sistemahoi sermolekula az mahluli yakkhelai moddahoi organiki, ehtimol, boyad chand marotiba ba amal meomad. In holat dar tabiat niz joy dorad.

Ammo dar sharoiti biosferai hozira faqat davrahoi avvali hosilshavii in sistemahoro bevosita didan mumkin ast.

Evolyutsiyai onho odatan kutoh ast, zero mikrobho onhoro zud mahv mekunand. Az hamin sabab, baroi fahmidani paydoishi in davrai hayot zarur ast, ki bo rohi suni dar sharoiti laboratori sistemahoi organikii moddahoi judo gonaro hosil namoem. Pas, dar moddahoi hosilkarda rohhoi imkoniyati evolyutsiyai onhoro dar zamonhoi guzashta va qonuniyathoi in ravandhoro barqaror kardan mumkin ast.

Dar vaqti kor bo payvastagihoi kalonmolekulai organiki dar sharoiti laboratori doimo hosilshavii in guna sistemahoi fazavii judogonaro didan mumkin ast. Az in ru, imkon dorem, ki rohhoi paydoishi onhoro tasavvur kunem, borohi tajriba dar sharoiti laboratori sistemahoi mukhtalifero hosil namoem, ki beshtari onho namunai (modeli) kadom vaqt dar rui Zamin paydo shudan meboshand.

Baroi misol, baze az onhoro nombar mekunem: «hubob»-hoi Goldeykr, «mikrosfera»-hoi Foks, Jeyvoni Bahodur, «protobiont»-i Egami va gayra.

Dar bisyor mavrid ba shabohati in sistemaho, ba obekthoi zinda az jihati morfologi diqqat doda meshavad.  Ammo halli masala na dar in, balki dar on ast, ki in sistema to tavonad ba muhiti beruna aloqamand boshad. Modda va energiyai onro az rui sistemai kushoda istifoda barad va dar hamin asos inkishof va afzoish yobad (yane on chi, ki ba organizmi zinda khos ast). Az hama aqidai oyandador dar in soha modeli qatrai koatservati meboshad.

Har yak molekula sokhtori muayyani tashakkul dorad, yane atomhoe, ki dar tarkibi on dokhil meshavand, dar fazo qoidavi joy megirand. Az hamin sabab, dar molekula qutbhoi zaryadashon gunogun hosil meshavand (+ –). Masalan, molekulai ob (N2O) du burj hosil karda, yak burji molekula zaryadi musbat (+) digarash zaryadi manfi (–) dorad. Gayr az in, baze molekulaho (masalan, namakho) dar mukhiti obi ba ionho dissotsiatsiya meshavand. Vobasta ba khususiyati khimiyavii tashakkuli molekula, dar atrofi on az molekulahoi muayyani nigarondashudai ob «kurtai» obi hosil meshavad.

Dar misoli molekulai NaCl mebinem: burji ob, ki bo ionii Na ihota shudaast, ba tarafi on zaryadi manfi, ba ioni C boshad, zaryadi musbat mayl kardaast (rasmi 2.6).

Gidratonidani kationi natriy – Molekulahoi organiki massai kaloni molekulavi va konfiguratsiyai murakkabi fazoi dorand. Az hamin sabab, onho niz bo pardai obi ihota shudaand, ki gafsii on ba andozai zaryadi molekula, konsentratsiyai namakho dar mahlul, harorat va gayraho vobasta ast.

Dar sharoiti muayyan jildi obi sarhadi aniq paydo karda, molekularo az mahluli ihotakarda judo mekunad. Molekulahoe, ki bo jildi obi ihota shudaand, metavonand muttahid shuda, majmui sermolekula – koatservatro hosil kunand (rasmi 2.7.).

Qatrahoi koatservati, hamchunin bo rohi oddii omekhtani polimerhoi gunoguni bo rohi tabii va suni hosilkarda paydo meshavand. Dar in vaqt khudjamoii molekulahoi polimer va qatrahoi judogonai sermolekula, ki dar zeri mikroskop dida meshavand, ba amal meoyad (rasmi 2.8.). Aksariyati molekulahoi polimer dar onho jam meshavand va dar muhiti beruna namemonand.

Qatrai koatservatii dar tajriba hosilshuda Qatraho az muhiti beruna tavassuti sarhad judo shudaand, ammo onho qobiliyat dorand, az muhiti berun moddaro, ba monandi sistemai kushod, jabbida girand.

Agar ba qatrahoi koatservat katalizatorhoi gunogun (az jumla, fermentho)-ro hamroh kunem, mumkin ast yak qator reaksiyaho, ba monandi reaksiyai polimerizatsiya, ba amal omada, az muhiti beruna monomerho dokhil shavand. Az hisobi in, andoza va vazni qatraho meafzoyand va minbad ba qismho taqsim meshavand.

Masalan, ravande, ki dar qatrai koatservati meguzarad, dar qavsi kvadrati, berun az on moddahoe, ki dar muhiti beruna vomekhurand, aks yoftaand.

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