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NAZARIYAI HUJAYRAVII SOHTI ORGANIZMHO

Az guftahoi bolo ba khulosa omadan mumkin ast, ki tamomi ravandhoi faoliyati hayoti dar hujayra meguzarad. Hujayra asosi sokhtori rastani va hayvonotro tashkil mekunad. Baroi prokariotho, soddatarinho, zanburughoi darajai past va baze obsabzho mafhumi hujayra va organizm mazmunan muvofiqand. Guftan mumkin ast, ki hujayra sistemai elementarii biologi buda, qobiliyati barqarorshavi, takrorshavi va inkishofro dorad.

Albatta, chunin tasavvurot oidi hujayra dar ilm yakbora paydo nashudand. Agar ba tarikhi omuzishi hujayra nazar afkanem, mebinem, ki jildi hujayra dar asri HVII az tarafi fizik R.Guk kashf shuda bud. Vay porai pukro dar zeri mikroskop dida, ba khulosa omad, ki on az khonachahoi bo devoraho judoshuda iborat ast. U in khonachahoro hujayra nomid.

Asri HIH diqqati muhaqqiqonro mahluli galize, ki dokhili hujayraro pur kardaast, jalb namud. Soli 1931 botaniki anglis B.Broun yadroi hujayraro mushohida kard. In tadqiqot zaminai muhime baroi muayyan kardani monandii

hujayrai rastani va hayvonot gasht. Botaniki olmoni M.SHleyden isbot namud, ki dar har hujayrai rastani yadro mavjud ast. Dar okhiri solhoi 30 asri HIH fiziologi olmoni T.SHvann sokhti hujayrai organizmhoro omukhta, muayyan kard, ki dar barobari tafovvut doshtani hujayrai rastani va hayvonot yadroi onho ba ham monandand. SHvann ba khulosa omad, ki hujayra vohidi sokhtorii asosii organizmhoi zinda buda, ba vujud omadani hujayraho sabzish va inkishofi boftahoro muayyan mesozad.

Nazariyai sokhti hujayravi az jonibi T.SHvann sharh doda shud va soli 1839 ba tab rasid. In nazariya dar inkishofi biologiya ahamiyati kalon bozid.

Ikhtilofhoe, ki dar bayni olami nabotot va olami hayvonot budand, bartaraf shudand. Dar natija yagonagii olami zinda mazmunan asosnok va nazariyai hujayravi yake az zaminahoi paydoishi nazariyai evolyutsionii CH.Darvin gar-

did. Nazariyai hujayragi badtar az tarafi olimoni digar inkshof doda shud. Dukhturi olmoni R.Virkhov (1853) isbot kard, ki berun az hujayra hayot nest; qismi asosii tarkibii hujayra yadro buda, hujayra faqat az hujayra bo rohi taqsimshavi paydo meshavad.

Dar natijai takmil yoftani tekhnikai mikroskopi, az jumla ikhtiro gashtani mikroskopi elektroni va peshrafti usulhoi biologiyai molekulavi imkoniyat paydo shud, ki hujayraro hamajoniba omukhta, sokhtor va ravandhoi biokhimiyavii dar on rukhdihandaro omuzand.

Dar zamoni hozira mohiyati asosii nazariyai hujayravi chunin sharh doda shudaast:

  1. Hujayra vohidi sokhtoriyu vazoifi, vohidi inkishofi hamai organizmhoi zinda ast.
  2. Hujayra sokhti membranavi dorad.
  3. YAdro qismi tarkibii asosii hujayra meboshad.
  4. Hujayra faqat bo rohi taqsimshavi meafzoyad. 5. Sokhti hujayravii organizmho daleli on ast, ki nabotot va hayvonot paydoishi umumi dorand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Tarikhi kashfi hujayraro naql kuned
  2. Nazariyai hujayraro ki va kay avvalin shuda sharh dodaast?
  3. Mohiyati asosii nazariyai hujayraviro naql kuned.
  4. Ahamiyati nazariyai hujayravi baroi biologiya dar chist?
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