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NASRI RIVOYATI

Nasr kalomi gayrimanzum buda, yak navi asari adabi ba shumor meravad. In navi asari adabii be vaznu qofiya az jonibi shakhsoni talimgirifta va sohibi zavqu donish gufta meshavad. SHakhse, ki khud asari nasri meofarad, navisanda va ejodkor ast. Hamin guna yakjoya bo qalamkashoni asarhoi manzum va sahnavi ganjinai buzurgi manavi va donishro ba vujud meorand, ki adabiyoti badei meshavad.

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Dar bayni mardum naql, qissa, afsona, latifa, tarona va gayra az zamonhoi qadim mavjudand, ki onhoro shakhsoni sohibzavq, yane roviyonu noqilon guftaand va boz dar tuli asrho bo sukhanu fikru khohishi mardum sayqal yoftaand. In khazinai buzurgi madaniro ejodiyoti shifohii (dahonii) mardum (folklor) menomand. Adabiyoti badei dar asosi folklor ba vujud omadaast va hamesha az sukhanu tavsifhoi on istifoda menamoyad.

Qadimtarin osori nazmie, ki ba zaboni porsii dari ba vujud omada bud, ba asri VIII taalluq dorad. Dar in davra dar kornamoihoi hokimonu pahlavononi afsonavi va voqeahoi tarikhiyu sarguzashtii niyogoni qavmhoi eroni najod shohnomaho va dostonhoi qahramoni talif shuda budand. Behtarin namunai nasri porsii dari, ki az asri X toruzgori mo mondaast, muqaddimai «SHohnomai Abumansurist», ki soli 958 bo suporishi sipahsolori Huroson Abu-mansur Muhammad Abdurrazzoq murattab gardida bud. YAke az navhoi adabiyoti shifohi nasri rivoyati meboshad, ki kitobhoi «Dorobnoma», «Hazoru yak shab», «Kalila va Dimna», «Sindbodnoma», «Tutinoma» va gayra az jumlai onhoyand. Hususiyati in navi nasr dar on ast, ki musannifoni on baroi ba yak tarzi murattab ba khonanda peshnihod namudani majmui hikoyatho yagon rivoyat yo hikoyatero intikhob karda, hikoyathoi digarro bo yagon vosita ba hikoyati vasila mepayvandand.

Hadafi asosi dar in mavrid hamon hikoyathoi dokhili buda, hikoyati vasila chun vositai yorirason khizmat mekunad. Har yak asari rivoyati vazifai muayyani goyaviro ado menamud. Musannifonu roviyoni in guna asarho mekushand, ki ba vositai hikoyathoi ovardaashon behtarin khislathoi insoniro targib namuda, raftoru kirdori odamoni zishtro fosh kunand. Dar beshtari asarhoi rivoyati sukhan az raftoru kirdor va amaliyoti podshohonu vaziron meravad.

Mazmuni baze hikoyathoi asarhoi rivoyati ba on dalolat mekunad, ki shohon qudratu tavonoii davlatro dar adlu insof donand, ba qadri khodimoni ilmu marifat birasand, shakhsoni oqilu dono va poksirishtro ba mansabhoi davlati jalb namoyand, dar halli muhimtarin korhoi davlati bo ahli ilmu marifat mashvarat kunand, dar atrofi khud mardumi bakhilu kutohandeshro roh nadihand va gayra. Hikoyathoi «Razmi Burondukht bo Iskandar», «Hiyonati arobi» va «Kalimoti kokhi Afredun», ki az asarhoi «Dorobnoma»,«Hazoru yak shab» va «Sindbodnoma» ovarda meshavand, namunai behtarini nasri rivoyatiand.

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