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NASLHOI MEH (Kompyuter)

Dar barobari bo surati benihoyat baland ziyod shudani miqdori kompyuterho, khudi onho niz zud mukammal gardonida meshudand. Moshinhoi elektronii hisob-barorro vobasta az bazai elementi, zudkori, hajmi khotira, majmui komandaho va arkhitekturaashon ba naslho judo mekunand. Kompyuterhoi mavjudaro shartan ba chor nasl judo mekunand. Imruzho baroi sokhtani kompyuterhoi nasli panjum niz korhoi ziyode ba anjom rasonida shudaand.

komputeri-kuhnaCHi khele ki qayd karda shud, ba naslho judokunii moshinhoi elektronii hisobbaror amali khele sharti ast. Masalan, kompyuter metavonad, ki az rui bazai elementiash ba yak naslu az rui khosiyathoi sokhtori va imkoniyathoyash ba nasli digar dakhl doshta boshad. Ba kharakte-ristikahoi az hama asosii MEH zudkori va hajmi khotirai favri dokhil  meshavand. Zudkori – bo miqdori miyonai amalhoi moshinii dar yak soniya ijroshavanda baho doda meshavad. Hajmi khotirai favri – bo miqdori kalimahoi moshini (taqriban razryadi duyi) chen karda meshavad. Holo ba tavri mukhtasar dar borai naslhoi MEH malumot medihem:

NASLI YAKUM (solhoi 40-50). Bazai elementi – lampahoi elektroni, zudkori – taqriban 100 amal/s, hajmi khotirai favri – taqriban 100 kalima, rejai istifodabari – monopoli: zakhirahoi moshini (khotira, taminoti programmavi va tajhizotii kompyuter) va idorakunii on dar ikhtiyori yak shakhs, navishti programma – zaboni moshini (kodi dui).

NASLI DUYUM (solhoi 50-60). Bazai elementi – tran- zistorho, zudkori – taqriban 10 000 amal/s, hajmi khotirai favri – taqriban 10 000 kalima, hajmi khotirai beruni (diskho va lentahoi magniti) – taqriban 10 mln. kalima, rejai istifodabari – korkardi paketi, navishti programma – zabonhoi algoritmi.

NASLI SEYUM (solhoi 60-70). Bazai elementi – skhemahoi integralii kalon, zudkori – taqriban 10 mln. amal/s, hajmi khotirai favri – taqriban 10 mln. kalima, hajmi khotirai beruni – taqriban 10 mlrd. kalima, usuli istifodabari  rejai vaqti taqsimkardashuda bo korkardi paketi.

EZOH:

Rejai vaqti taqsimkardashuda gufta rejaero meguyand, ki muvofiqi on kompyuter dar yak vaqt az rui porsiyaho (hissahoi muayyani vaqti khele khurd) dar halli yakchand masalaho ishtirok menamoyad.

NASLI CHORUM (az solhoi 70-um). Bazai elementi  skhemahoi integralii az had kalon. Hususiyati farqkunandai moshinhoi in nasl – miqdori khele ziyodi tajhizoti korkardi informatsiyai ba tavri paralleli korkunanda va mavjud

budani elementhoi arkhitekturai navi MEH. Dar se nasli avvalai MEH asosan arkhitekturai ananavii fon Neyman istifoda burda shuda budand. Dar sokhtori kompyuterhoi in nasl aloqai zichi qismhoi tekhniki va programmavi jori karda shud. Zudkori – taqriban yak mlrd. amal/s, hajmi khotirai favri – taqriban 10 mlrd. kalima. Usuli kor – istifo-dabarii shaklhoi shabakavi va alohidai kompyuterho.

NASLI PANJUM. Loihahoi moshinhoi in nasl dar zinai amalishavi meboshand. Vale allakay az in loihaho va nuskhahoi tajribavii kompyuterho khulosa barovardan mumkin ast, ki dar in jo zudkori bo khulosabarorihoi mantiqi omekhta gardonida meshavand. Usuli istifodabari – dialo-gi bayni istifodabaranda va MEH bo zaboni muqarrarii odami. Fanni programmasozi hamchun ilm dar oyanda baroi istifodabarandagoni MEH ahamiyati aktualii khudro gum mekunad. Donishi dar sohahoi gunoguni faoliyati inson gunkardashuda, dar khotirai kompyuter dar shakli bazai donishho va malumotho nigoh doshta meshavad. Sahmi kogaz hamchun barandai informatsiya khele kohish meyobad.

Tasviri naslhoi MEH-ro ba poyon rasonida, khotirrason menamoem, ki taraqqiyoti boshiddati tekhnikai hisobbarorro sinfi masalahoe muayyan mesozand, ki onhoro ilmi muosir peshnihod namudaast. Kompyuter niz, dar navbati khud, ba sohahoi tadbiqi khud tasiri bevosita merasonad. Tekhnikai kayhoni, energetikai atomi, loihakashii obekthoi mukammaltarini bazai informat siya va donishro be itifodabarii kompyuter tasavvur kardan amri mahol ast. Amalan maydoni tadbiqi kompyuter hamai sohahoi faoliyati inson buda, on doimo takmil va farokh megardad.

Savolho:

  1. Kompyuterhoro az rui kadom kharakteristikahoyashon ba naslho judo menamoyand?
  2. CHand nasli kompyuterhoro medoned?
  3. Farqi rejai istifodabarii kompyuterhoi nasli duyum az yakum dar chist?
  4. Hususiyati farqkunandai kompyuterhoi nasli chorum az digar naslho dar chist?
  5. Oyo nasli panjumi kompyuterho vujud dorad yo ne? Kompyuterhoi in nasl chi guna kompyuterhoyand?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Harakteristikahoi umumii naslhoi kompyuterhoro dar shakli tablitsa tasvir namoed.
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