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NAQSHA VA HARITA

Ahamiyatn omuzishi naqsha va kharita. Geografiyaro biduni naqsha va kharita omukhtan dushvor ast. Baroi on ki geografiya na faqat hodisaho va jismhoi mahali ba mo malumro meomuzad va tadqik menamoyad, vay inchunin hodisa va jismhoi tabiati tamomi sathi Zaminro meomuzad va tadqiq menamoyad, ki az nazari mo nihoyat durand. Az hamin sabab hangomi omukhtani onho mo ba kharita bisyor murojiat menamoem.

Haritai chakhon

Mo az kharita dar kadom qismi sathi Zami» ba vujud omadani hodisaho (otashfishonii vulqonkho, zaminjunbi, tufon, maddu jazr, gunogunii darajai harorat, miqdori borishot va gayra), joygirshavi va khususiyati obektkho (kuhho, hamvoriho, daryoho, bahrho, gunogunii khok, nabotot, hayvonot va gayra)-ro meomuzem. Dar in mavrid kharitaro na faqat chun vositai ayoni, balki hamchun manbai donish niz istifoda mebarem. Az in bisyor malumothoero azkhud menamoem, ki dar matni kitobi darsi mavjud nestand. Binobar in, pesh az on ki mo kharita va naqsharo dar jarayoni dars, njroi vaznfai khonagi istifoda barem, boyad donem, ki onho chigunaand va sathi Zamin dar onho chi tavr aks yoftaast. Donistani in masoil baroi khubtar fahmidann naqshayu kharita va beshtar azkhud namudani donishi geografi madad merasonad.

Tasviri mahal dar naqsha va namudhoi on. Ba naqsha giriftani mahal az davrahoi qadim ba odamon malum bud. On az manzarai mahale, ki mo bevosita va dar suratu aksho mebinem, ba kulli farq mekunad. CHizhoi nazdik kalon va on chizhoe, ki dar masofai dur voqe gardidaand, khurd aks meyoband. CHizhoi kalon khurdro panah menamoyand. Ba chashm va rasmu surat andoza va shakli mahalro muayyan kardan dushvor ast. Gayr az in, manzarai mahal dar rasm va surat az bolo ne, balki az pahlu tasvir karda meshavad. Dar naqsha va suratkhoe, ki az charkhbolu radifhoi masnuii Zamin aksbardori shudaand, in tavr nest. Dar onho, chi tavre ki msguyand, mahal ”az balandii parvozn paranda”. yane az bolo aksbardori karda shudaast. In ba mo imkoniyat medihad, ki na faqat gunogunii tabiati mahalro purra tasvir namoem, balki khususiyat. andoza va joygirshavii obektkhoi tabiatro khub va aniq muayyan kunem.

Ba ii alomathoi monandi nigoh nakarda, surathoi az charkhbol va az kayhon girifta az naqshai mahal farq mekunand. Dar in suratho obektkhoe, ki dar mahal mavjudand (zamini kisht, bogho, dehaho, daryo va kulho…), chi tavre ki dida meshavand, hamon tavr aks meyoband. Bar khilofi suratho hamai obektkhoi mahal dar naqsha ba vositai alomatkhoi sharti tasvir karda meshavand. Gayr az in, dar surati az charkhbol va az kayhon giriftashuda na hama obekthoi mahal purra va ravshan aks meyoband. Dar naqsha boshad, hamai obektkhoi mahal be yagon noqisi aksbardori karda meshavand. Inro hangomi muqoisai naqshai mahal va surati on ba osoni fahmidan mumkin ast (ba namunai 1 nigared).

Tamomi jihathoi khosi naqsharo ba hisob girifta, onro chunin tarif medihand: qismi sathi Zaminro, ki az bolo bo miqyosi muayyan dar rui kogaz ba shakli khurd tasvir karda shudaast, naqshai nahal menomand. Naksha ahamiyati amaly lorad. Pesh az on ki dar in yo on mavze roh, nahri suni, obanbor, inshooti barqi, korkhona va gayra sokhta shavad, mavjud budani naqshai makhal zarur ast. Biduni chunin naksha sokhtani hama guna inshoot natijai dilkhoh namedihad, chunki be donistani khususiyati jinshoi kuhi, Tarkib va khobishi kabatho, soddagy va murakkabii relef va gayra sokhtani inshoothoi kalon ba har guna oqibathoi nokhush ovarda merasonad.

Alomatkhoi sharti. Tavre ki az tarifi naqsha malum ast, on shakli khurd tasvirshudai in yo on qismi sathi Zamin meboshad. Binobar in hamai on obekthosro, ki dar mahal mavjudand, dar naqsha bo alomathoi sharti joygir kardan iihoyat dushvor ast. Az hamin sabab baroi dar naksha joygir kardani onkho ilmi nakshabardory (topografiya) ba khar yak obekti dar mahal voqebuda alomati shartii muvofiq muayyan kardaast. Aksari onho bo rang, shakl, namudi zohiri, mavke va tarzi joygirshavi ba obekthoe, ki dar naqshai mahal joygir karda shudaand, shabohat dorand. Az jumla kulu daryoro bo rangi kabud, regzorro bo rangi jigary, jangalzorro bo rangi sabz, margzorro bo khatchahoi jufti reshamonand, darakhtoni mevaro bo doirachahoi khurdi rost safkashida. zamini kishtro bo rangi safsd ishora menamoyand.

Obektkhoe, ki dar mahal masohati kalonro ishgol mekunand (jangalzor, margzor, regzor. botloq, zamini kisht), khududi onho dar zaminai ranghoi ishorashuda bo nuqtaguzori va digar alomatho judo karda meshavand. On obekthoe, ki dar mahal ba masofai ziyod tul kashidaand (khiyobonkho, rohho) va yo jori meshavand (daryochaho, juyho, nahrhoi suni), dar naqsha bo khatcha ishora karda meshavand. Az sababi on ki daryochaho, rohho, kuchahoro muvofiqi miqyos ba naqshai mahal choygir menamoyand, darozii onhoro az rui miqyos hisob namuda, muayyan kardan mumkin ast. Dar naqshahoi kalonmiqyosi mahal makhalhoi akholinishin mufassaltar inikos karda meshavand. Az rui chunin naqshakho didan mumkin ast, ki dar kadom qismati mahal bogu gulgashtho, muassisahoi farhangi, bemorkhonaho, fabrikavu zavodho va gayra joygir shudaand. Hamin tavr dar naqshai mahal muvofiqi ilmi naqshabardory bo alomathoi sharti joygir namudani obektkho ba mo imkoniyat medikhad, ki naqsharo ba osoni khonda, onro istifoda barem.

SAVOL:

  1. Naqshai mahal chist? On baroi chy lozim ast?
  2. Naqshai mahal az rasm va surati mahal chi farq dorad?
  3. Az rui nakshai sahifai 5-i atlas tahlil namoed, ki obekthoi dar mahal joygirifta dar naqsha bo kadom alomatho, chi guna ishora karda shudaand?
  4. Baroi on ki naqshai mahal ba osoni khonda shavad, alomathoi shartiro chy tavr intikhob va ifoda mekunand?
  5. Dar naqsha ba vositai chi darozii kucha, roh, daryocha va nahri suniro muayyan kardan mumkin ast?
  6. Omuzishi naqsha va kharita dar talimi geografiya chy ahamiyat dorad?
  7. Mafhumi naqsha, namudhoi tasviri makhdro Dar naqsha bayon namoed.
  8. Alomathoi sharty va mohiyati onhoro sharh dihed.
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