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Mustahkam kardani amorati Bukhoro

Chunon ki dar bolo qayd karda shud, norizoyatii ommai khalq tamomi amorati Bukhororo faro megirift. Doniyolbi na faqat khudsarihoi feodalonro bartaraf karda natavonist, balki khudash toraft beshtar mutei kushbegi va qozikalon megardid. Yake az pisaroni u — Shohmurod khudro tamoman ba tariqati sufiya bakhshida, muridi shaykhe shud. Vay dar zohir az darveshi miskin hej tafovut nadosht. Bo farmoishi shaykh hatto dar bozor hammoli mekard. Sodagi va dastrasii zohiri, tarzi zindagii shikastanafsonai shahzoda, ki ba kulli khilofi zindagonii ayyoshona va purdabdabai ayonu ashrof va khudi Doniyolbi bud, boisi dar bayni ommai khalq va ahli zuhdu taqvo shuhrat va etibori ziyod paydo kardani u gardid. Shohmurod, makhsusan, ba ruhoniyon ikhlos va ehtiromi beandoza doshtani khudro bo jiddu jahdi tamom takid menamud. Doniyolbi chunin marufiyati pisarashro ba nazar nagirifta nametavonist va shahzoda dar umuri davlat besh az pesh nufuz paydo namud. U ba bekor kardani baze andozho niz muvaffaq shud. Padarro ba juz vorisi khud tain kardani u digar chorae namond.

Pas az vafoti Doniyolbi valiahdi u libosi tavba dar tan faryodkunon dar kuchahoi Bukhoro gashta, bo lobavu zori az mardum iltijo menamud, ki gunohhoi nisbat ba mardum kardai marhumro bubakhshand. Vay hamchunin hissai khudro az merosi padar girifta, amr kard, ki in sarvatro ba kasone, ki «az onho sitonida shudaast», bargardonand. Chunin vonamud mekard, ki guyo u gayri khohishi khud ba takhti saltanat nishastaast va, az in ru, boz ba asbobi tajammul nazdik nashuda, khudro dar maslaki zuhdu taqvo nigoh medosht. Tarzi zindagii khoksorona va porsoyonai u (libosi faqru foqa mepushid va onro to jigda-jigda shuda daridanash az tan namekashid, taomi oddi va khele kam mekhurd, hej goh hadya namegirift, dar yak ruz baroi ehtiyojoti khud faqat yak tanga kharj mekard va g.) muosironashro dar hayrat meguzoshtand. U baroi tahdidi sinfi khojagon va ashrof qushbegi va qozikalonro dar huzuri umum ba qatl rasonid. Chunin raftoru kirdori u, ki az rui mulohizahoi siyosi surat megirift, dar kori sohib shudan ba takhti saltanat va ba tarafi khud kashidani tavajjuhi ommai mardum roli muhim bozid.[1]

In tavajjuh baroi Shohmurod nihoyatdaraja zarur bud, zero dar soli ba takht nishastani u (1785) kosai sabri aholii Bukhoro labrez shuda, onho shurish bardoshtand. Dar rafti shurish besh az hazor nafar kushta shud. Az in raqam ba khubi malum meshavad, ki muborizai khalq to chi andoza vusat doshtaast. Shohmurod majbur shud savgand khurad, ki aholii Bukhororo az javru zulm va khiroju andozhoi az had ziyod ozod khohad kard. Va farmoni uro ba rui sang sabt namuda, dar peshtoqi masjidi jomei Bukhoro guzoshtand. Albatta, in yak vadai khushku kholi va faqat vasilai az gazabi khalq rahoi yoftan bud. Az bukhoriyon minbad ham moliyoti makhsus, ki ba maqsadhoi harbi andokhta meshud, mesitonidand.

Ahdi saltanati amir Shohmurod (1785–1800) dar tarikhi sulolai Mangitiya davrai nisbatan ustuvor gardidani amorat ba shumor meravad.

Shohmurod ba maqsadi bartaraf namudani norizoyatii umumi, ki dar vaqti hukmronii padarash paydo shuda bud, baze islohot jori namud. Vay faqat chunin andozhoi shari, monandi khiroj va zakotro boqi guzoshta, digar hamai moliyot, boj va jarimahoro barham dod. Lekin ba ivazi in jizya – andozi az qavmhoi gayrimusulmon sitondashavandaro khele ziyod kard. Ba askaron mohiyona muqarrar namud. Bisyor zaminhoi vaqfro, ki amironi sobiq musodira  karda  budand, dubora barqaror  kard.  Ba in vosita u ruhoniyoni islomro homii khud karda, dar rohi mustahkam namudani hokimiyati khud az nufuzi dar bayni ommai mardum doshtai onho mohirona istifoda meburd.

Islohoti pulie, ki u dar ogozi julusi khud guzaronid, baroi hayoti iqtisodii mamlakat ahamiyati kalon paydo namud. Khonhoi sulolai Joniyon va sipas nakhustin amironi mangit sikkahoi nuqrai kamiyor barovarda, az tafovuti qurbi rasmi va amalii in sikkaho foidai ziyode ba dast meovardand. In holat, dar navbati khud muomiloti puliro vayron karda, chun bori garone ba dushi aholi meaftod. Shohmurod iqdomi qati namud. Shakli zohiri, hajm va vazni sikkahoro tagyir doda, onhoro az nuqrai puriyor mebarovardagi shudand. har kas metavonist ba sikkakhona nuqra ovarda, ba ivazash (haqqi zarrobiro pardokhta) pul bigirad. Zohiran, sikkahoi kuhnai pesh az islohot      az etibor soqit karda shudand.[2] In islohoti puli bar tibqi talaboti aynii iqtisodiyot ba vuqu payvasta, ba rivoju ravnaqi tijorat musoidat namud.

Ba Shohmurod lozim omad, ki ba maqsadi afzudani iqtidori hokimiyati markazi hokimoni viloyathoro az kor barkanor karda, hokimoni nav tain namoyad. Ba har shahru deha qozi tain kardanro niz u ba taomul darovard. Muqobilati feodaloni judogona darham shikasta shud. hatto sarkashtarini onho niz sari itoat kham kard. Chunonchi, Niyozali, ki dar vaqti Doniyol khudro dar Shahrisabz mustaqil elon karda bud, itoati amir Shohmurodro qabul namud.

Shohmurod umuri mahkamaro niz yak daraja ba tartib darovard. Khudash risolae roje ba huquq talif namud, ki baroi qoziho hamchun dastur khizmat mekard. Dar on zamon qonune jori gardid, ki bar tibqi on agar kase nisbat ba molikiyat jinoyate sodir kunad, sarfi nazar az martabahoi jamiyatii u, ba sakhttarin jazo giriftor meshud. Chunin tadbirot yak andoza peshi rohi goratu torojhoi az had ziyodro girifta, ba manfiati tabaqahoi osoishtalabi aholi bud. hama medonistand, ki baroi rohzani sar az tan judo mekunand, baroi duzdi dasti rostro meburand va g. Shohmurod in chorabinihoro tahti livoi muboriza dar rohi rioyati ahkomi shariat amali namuda, bo in bahona baroi muroqibat va muhofizati rasmu oin mansabi raisro jori sokht, ki u meboist ijroi tamomi farmudahoi shariatro khurdagirona nazorat mekard.[3]

Mustahkam shudani hokimiyati markazi boisi tamini amniyati rohho gardid va in dar barobari islohoti pul baroi ravnaqi tijorat zaminai musoid faroham ovard. Khojagii vohahoi ziroati, khususan vodii Zarafshon, inchunin havzai daryoi Amu va Qashqadaryo dubora ru ba sabzish nihod. Dar bobati afzudani nufusi nohiyahoi kamodam choraho dida shudand, kanalhoi navi obyori aknun na az oni feodalhoi mahalli, balki moli podshohi mahsub meyoftand va az in ham madokhili khazinai davlat meafzud. Dar natijai peshrafti korhoi obyori protsessi ba zindagonii muqimi guzashtani toifahoi bodiyanishini uzbek dar zaminhoi navobod quvvat girift.[4]

Amir Shohmurod riyokorona qiyofai darveshi porsoro ba khud girifta, taassubi diniro rivoj medod va az on ba maqsadi jori kardani siyosatash istifoda menamud. U tahti shiori «jihodi muqaddas bar ziddi shiaho» chandin martaba ba Khuroson lashkar kashid va bisyor mahalhoi onro toroj namud. Umaroi Mangitiya dar in lashkarkashiho har yak kasi qobili mehnatro az aholii Khuroson asir karda, ba Bukhoro meovardand. Ba in vosita bozori gulomfurushii Bukhoro khele avj girift. Dar okhirhoi asri KhVIII, vaqte ki Eron sargarmi janghoi dokhilii khud bud, Shohmurod dubora Marvro ishgol kard. Pas az chande vay ba muqobili barodari khud Umarbi, ki dar Marv hukm ronda, baroi judo shudan az Bukhoro kushish mekard, dokhili muhoriba gardid va sarbandi daryoi Murgobro ba kulli vayron namud. U tadrijan qismati ziyodi  aholii  in voharo  ba Samarqandu  Bukhoro kuchonida,  dar tamiri kharobahoe, ki az janghoi sobiq ba amal omada budand, istifoda burd. In siyosati peshgiriftai Shohmurod to andozae ba tarmimi kharobihoi vodii Zarafshon, makhsusan atrofi Samarqand va Bukhoro musoidat kard, vale dar ayni zamon vay boisi tamoman ba kharobazor tabdil yoftani vohai Marv gardid. Shohmurod yakchand dafa  ba  tarafhoi Uroteppa lashkar kashid va dar  in  mavridho niz  aksari  aholii qobili  mehnati  Khujand, Uroteppa, Khavos, Zomin va YOmro zuran ba Samarqand burda, dar sokhtmoni binoho va inshooti obyori istifoda burd. Mahz bo quvvai in odamon dar Samarqand 24 masjid va digar imorathoi gunogun sokhta shudand.[5]

[1] Soddagi va porsoii Shohmurod ba darajai afsona rasida, nomi aslii u «Amir Masum» (ba manii «amiri begunoh» ) mashhur shudaast – nig.: Semyonov A.A., 1953, s. 41–42. Ammo zolimii u niz ba andozae muosironashro mutahayir sokhtaast, ki tarikhi vafotashro «zolim murd» guftaand –nig.: Semyonov A.A., 1924, s. 163, ezohi 2.

[2] Davidovich E.A., 1964, s. 164–168.

[3] Mirzoshamsi Bukhori, 1861, s. 45.

[4] Bartold V.V., 1963 v. s. 281.

[5] Mukhtorov A., 1964 s. 45

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