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Mussammathoi Sayidoi Nasafi

Mussammat dar ejodiyoti Sayido pas az gazal, dar joi duyum meistad, ki az 1050 bayt iborat ast. Sayido beshtar ba gazaliyoti Husravi Dehlavi, Kamolu Hofiz, Jomivu Hiloli, Kalimu Tolib, Muhtashami Koshivu Soibi Tabrezi, Mushfiqivu Urfi mussammat bastaast. Hudi hamin jurati Sayido guvohi on ast, ki u dar ejodi mussammat ustod meboshad, zero ba gazaliyoti shoironi darajai avvali adabiyot tazmin bastaast. SHoir golibon dar in kor ba ejodiyoti Soib ru ovarda, beshtar ba gazalhoi Soib tazmin bastaast.

Mussammat nave az sheri tasmit (musammat) buda, az bandhoi 3-10 misrai iborat ast. On metavonad az 5 yo 6 band iborat boshad va du nav meshavad: yake mussammati mustaqil, ki purra ejodi khudi shoir ast va digare se misra az khudi shoir va du misrai digar az shoiri muosir yo salaf ast.

Mussammat bo on kharakternok ast, ki bandi yakumi on purra hamqofiya; a, a , a ,a , a, a bandhoi minbada chahor misra hamqofiya va misrai panjum ba bandi avval hamqofiya meshavad. Masalan, «Namond»-nom mussammati mukhammasi Sayido ki bar gazali Soibi Tabrezi (1603-1677) basta shudaast:

Arbobi judro[1] kafi gavharfishon namond,

Dasti kushodae ba muhitu ba kon namond,

Dar ruzgori mo zi muruvvat nishon namond,

«Az himmati baland asar dar jahon namond,

YAk sarv dar sarosari in buston namond»,

To chugztinaton ba fazoi chaman shudand,

CHun sabza soyaparvari sarvu suman shudand,

Gulho zi baski hamdami zogu gagan shudand,

Murgoni nagmasanj jaloi vatan shudand,

CHuz bayzai[2] shikasta dar in oshyon namond.

Az ahli dil namond dar in khokdon nishon,

Bastand obu oinai rakhti khud az miyon,

Hurshed guft vaqti vidoash ba osmon,

«Ravshanilo chu barq guzashtand az miyon,

Hokistare ba joy az in korvon namond.

Az didai basirati[3] mo khob shud ravon,

Abyot az safina[4] chu simob shud ravon,

Tahrir az sahifa chu khunob shud ravon,

«Az chashmi surmavori davot ob shud ravon,

SHirinzabonii qalami nuktadon namond».

Ey Sayido, tu dil ba amqomi najot kash,

Poy az miyoni toifai besubot kash,

CHun Hizr rakhti khesh ba obi hayot kash,

«Soib, zaboni khoma ba komi davot kash,

Imruz chun sukhantalabe dar jahon namond».

Dar mussammati mukhammasi mazkur baythoi dar nokhunak (« ») giriftashuda moli Soiband. Namunai bolo daleli on ast, ki khususiyathoi shakli va mundarijavii abyot komilan rioya shudavu az sohibistedod budani har du shoir shahodat medihnd.

Az sababi dar gazalhoi Sayido ohanghoi ijtimoi sadoi qavitare dorand, in holat dar mukhammashoi ba gazalhoi shoironi digar navishtai u to andozae his karda meshavad YAne Sayido ba gazalhoi komilan oshiqona niz to darajae ohanghoi ijtimoii puquvvate vorid sokhtaast. Masalan dar mussammati mukhammasi Sayido, ki bo radifi «Namond» bar gazali Soib insho shudaast, hej gumon nameravad, ki abyoti du adab boshand, zero vazn, radifu qofiyaho, mazmunu mundarija, mavzu, khususiyathoi sabki va gayra komilan barobarand va janbahoi hunarii on niz yaksonand. Hol on ki dar in navi sheri to darajae ejodkori mussammati mustaqilu ozod nest.

Dar navi duyumi mussammat mo komilan ozod budani shoirro mushohida menamoem. Baroi namuna yak mussammati mukhammasi mustaqili Sayidoro zikr namuda, oid ba sanati nazmi u az namunai mazkur natijagiri khohem kard:

Didaro umre ba mardum oshno kardam, nashud,

Sinaro oinai sidqu safo kardam, nashud,

Bo badu neki jahon ahdu vafo kardam, nashud,

Dar dili har kas zi rui mehr jo kardam, nashud,

Honai shodi ba rui khesh vo kardam, nashud.

Muddate chun soya budem dar qafoi shaykhu shob,

Ruzgore hamnshin budam ba minovu sharob,

Sar ba tanhoi baroram bad az in chun oftob,

Posi khotir to ba kay doram dar in dayri kharob,

Bo qalandar shurbu bo zohid riyo kardam, nashud.

Mehruboniho namudam dustoni kheshro,

YOr bo madhu sanno kardam zaboni kheshro,

CHun qalam guyam manaknun dostoni kheshro,

Hoki pok har yak az hamsuhbatoni kheshro,

Solho dar didai khud tutiyo kardam, nashud.

Majlisi agyor ravshan kardaast on mayparast,

Ey musulmonon, chi boyad kard bo on shukhi mast?

Dar firoqi zulfi kofarkesh mekhurdam shikast,

Obrui raftaro mekhostam oram ba dast,

Dar harimi Kaaba chandone duo kardam, nashud!

Sayido, doram dili chun gunchai gul pur zi khun,

Kavkabi bakhtam dar ob aftoda, tole shud zabun,

Meravam, zanjir dar po, dar biyoboni junun,

Baski nokom az dili ofoq aftodam burun,

Qimati khudro ba narkhi khoki po kardam, nashud.

Albatta, mussammat az nimahoi duyumi asri XIII zuhur karda, dar asri XV har du navi on khele inkishof kardaast va dar in asr (XV) khususan ustod Jomi onro baso rivoj dodaast. Sayido sunnati adabii mazkurro dar asri XVII tahavvuli makhsus bakhshida, onro az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo tozagiho vorid sokht

CHunonchi, ba gazali zerini Soib mussammati mukhammasi «Game doram»-ro bastaast, ki

Sari purshuru jismi logaru pushti khame doram,

Dar in vodi farovon dardi bedarmon gamdoram,

Pareshonkhotiram imruz guyo motame doram,

«Labi khushku dili khuninu chashmi purname doram,

Nigah dorad Hudo az chashmi bad khush olame doram»

Agar gul dar zamini dil nishonam, khor meruyad,

Niholi sabz koram, nesh az gulzor meruyad,

Maro az sina dil hamchun zaboni mor meruyad,

«Ba joi javhari oinaam zangor meruyad,

Guvoro bod aysham khush bahori khurrame doram»,

Ba gardun tiri ohi hastagon sozad asar, Soib,

Baroyad ehtiyoji Sayido az chashmi tar, Soib,

CHu shabnam gashtaam az peshi khud sohibnazar, Soib,

«Zi rozi osmonho chun nabosham bokhabar, Soib,

Ki man az kosai zonui khud CH,omi CH,ame doram».

SHoir dar in navi ashor niz ba pahluhoi gunoguni zindagi, ba mavzuhoi mukhtalifi ruzgori inson dakholat menamoyad. U dar hama guna holatu vaziyat az noadolatihoi ruzgor shikoyat dorad va ba hamin mazmun gazal meyobad va mussammat mebandad, ki dar mantiqi oddii ifoda, ba ham omadani andeshahoi shuaroi tojik dar asrhoi gunogun, dar muhitu zamonhoi mukhtalif ast. CHunonchi, boz dar hamfikri bo Soib meguyad:

Dar chaman imruz bulbul masti guftori khud ast,

Kabk dar kuhsorho dar bandi raftori khud ast,

Sarv magruri qadu gul mahvi raftori khud ast,

«Har kiro binam dar in olam girifori khud ast,

Kori haq dar toqi nasyon monda dar kori khud ast»,

Ruzgore shud, ki dar vayronae hastam muqim,

Mekunam payvasta yod az ahdi yoroni qadim,

In nido omad urun az khoki Musoi Kolim,

«Hizr osudast az tamiri devori yatim,

Har kasero ruy dar tamiri devori khud ast».

Honabardushem moro hojati dastor nest,

Paykari moro libosi tozae darkor nest,

Sayido, moro nazar ba chashmi dunyodor nest,

«CHashmi Soib chun sadaf bar abri gavharbor nest,

Zeri bori minnati tabi guhrbori man ast».

YAne Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi dar tahavvuli janri mussammati mukhammas va makhsusan dar gani gardonidani mazmunu muhtavoi on risolati tarikhii kheshro ado kardaast.

«SHahroshu(5»-i Sayido va sokhtori on, tasviri hunarmandon Dar in
asar.

«SHahroshub»-i nakhustin ba qalami shoiri asri XI tojikzaboni hind Masudi Sadi Salmon taalluq dorad. Mahastii Ganjavi, Husravi Dehlavi, Sayfii Bukhoroi, Ogahi, Mirmuhammadi Hoshim, Mavlono Ozari va bisyor digaron navhoi gunoguni shahroshub navishtaand.

Sayido dar asri XVII sunnati ejodi chunin asarro ehyo kard, ki yake az khidmathoi digari adib dar tarikhi adabiyot meboshad. «SHahroshub»-i Sayido dar navi muayyani adabi (gazal, qasida, qita, ruboi…) navishta namudaast va az in ru, asari shoir dar shakli khud ozod ast. «SHahroshub»-i Sayido az omezishi shaklhoi gunoguni sheri iborat meboshad. Az in nigoh bunyodi «SHahroshub»-i Sayidoro baythoi fard tashkil medihand va har yak bayt yak sheri mustaqil ast. Binobar hamin ham asar vazni yagona niz nadorad va dar vaznhoi gunogun navishta shudaast.

Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi dar «SHahroshub» namoyandai kasbu korhoi gunogun misli: zargar, bofanda, kuloli, tanburi, qannod, khishtpaz, muzaduz, charchinfurush, toqiduz, devorzan, kabobpaz, halvogar, darzi va gayraro khele ustodona tasvir kardaast. Dar in asari shoir hamagi 212 nafar namoyandai kasbu hunar ba tavri hazlomezona vasf karda meshavad.

«SHahroshub» nishon medihad, ki Sayido to kadomin poya bo mardumi mehnati, bo tabaqahoi ijtimoi-istehsolii jamiyat nazdik ast. Ba mardum, ba nozukihoi koru peshai onho ba ruzgoru zindagi ba munosibatu raftor va guftoru faoliyati onho az nazdik oshno meboshad.

Asar arzishi adabi-hunari niz dorad, zero az jonibi shoiri tavono, sukhansanji sohibistedod rui kor omadaast. Sanati sukhanofarinii adib, hunari ejodi sanatkor, sabki nigorishu shevai talifi Sayido dar in asar to ba hadde khususiyati khalqi giriftaast.

CHunonchi:

Dilbari halvagaramro hast tege dilkharosh,

Az gami u qomatam khele gasht chun halvotarosh

yo khud:

Dilbari qassobi man omad, dukoni khud kushod,

Dunbaro az peshi khud bigrift, peshi man nihod!

[1]     Arbobi jud-ahli sakho

[2]     Bayza-tukhm

[3]     Basirat- chashm

[4]     Safina-devoni ashor

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