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Musavviri va khattoti dar asrhoi XVII-XVIII

Dar kitobkhona va muzeyhoi mamlakathoi jakhon nuskhahoi khattii kitobhoi gunogun mazmuni asrhoi XVII- XVIII mahfuzand. Baze az onho bo minnatyurai musavvironi Osiyoi Miyona zinat yoftaand. Az namunai kori onho malum meshavad, ki ananai maktabi miniatyurii asri XVI davom va inkishofi bosazoi khudro dar asrhoi badina paydo namudaast. Misoli onro mo dar asari SHarafiddin Alii YAzdi “Zafarnoma” mebinem. In nuskha soli 1628 dar Samarqand kitobat shuda, 12 miniatyuraro dar bar megirad. Hamai rasmho bisyor zebo va joliband. Musavviri zabardast dar sahnahoi ramzi bo yak mahorati hayratangez tavonistaast miqdori ziyodi simohoi odamro joy dihad. Dar in miniatyura simoi 28 odam va 18 asl mavjud ast. Dar miniatyura jangi 20 kas tasvir yoftaast. Sahnai bazmi Temur niz purodam ast: dar in jo ahli kibor, sipohiyon, mutribon, hofizon, roviyon va soqiyonro metavon did. Sahnaho khele zebo va khushrang ofarida shudaand.

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Ba hamin nav sanati baland asari muallifi maschohi Masud ibni Usmoni Kuhistoni — “Tarikhi Abdulkhayrkhon”, asari Hotifi — “Temurnoma” zeb yoftaand. YAke az musavvironi zabardasti zamon Muhammadmurodi Samarqandi bud. U asari marufi Sadii SHerozi “Buston”- ro bo sanati voloi khud zeb dodaast.

Kitobhoi gunogunmazmun, makhsusan devoni shoironi zamonhoi mukhtalif, az tarafi khattotoni marufu mashhuri asri XVII-ibtidoi asri XVIII ruynavis meshudand. Nisbat ba musavviron khattoton afzaliyat doshtand. Hushkhattarin va maruftarini onho dar darbori khonho va ashrof khizmat mekardand. Hattotoni marufi in asr Mir Imod va Hoji YOdgor budand. Hattoti yak navi boetibori kasbu hunar ba shumor meraft. Azbaski shoironi doirahoi shahr ba vositai sher zindagii khudro tamin karda nametavonistand, bisyori az onho barobari shergui khushnavisi va khattoti niz mekardand. In hunar baroyashon madori maosh megardid. YAks az ustodoni khat Hochi Muhammad Sobiri Samarqandi ham shoir, ham ustodi haftqalam (yane ustodi haft namud khat) bud. Digar ustodi khat shoiri zabardast Mumtozi Samarqandi ba shumor meraft.

Sanati balandi khattotie, ki dar navishtani kitobho mushohida meshavad, az khathoi rui sangi qabrho farq mekunad. Az katibahoi boqimondai kuhistoni tojik—Mastchohu Falgar, barmeoyad, ki dar asri XVII hunari zeboi asri XV-XVI ru ba tanazzul nihoda bud. Ustodoni khatti rui sangho dar kuhiston Hoji Mahmud, Boqi pisari Muhammad va digaron budand.

Ba sanati musavviron va khattotoni zabardast hunari sahhofon (muqovakunandai kitob) jur bud. Zeboi va bozorgir shudani kitob ba hunari onho niz vobastagi doshtt. Muqovaro ustoho az charm sokhta, rui onro bo gulho oro medodand. Ba rui muqova ba gayr az gulu gulkori nom va soli jildsoziashonro ustoho sabt mekardand. YAke az sahhofoni ustokori asri XVII Mullo Ortuq pisari Sufi Tursun bud. U soli 1683 Quronro chunon ustokorona muqova kardaast, ki binandaro dar hayrat meguzorad.

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