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Mushakho va vazifai onho

Az rui nakhi khud boftai mushak 3 khel meshavad:

  1. boftai kundalangrakhi mushaki skeleti;
  2. boftai kundalangrakhi mushaki dil;
  3. boftai mushaki sufta.

Ba har yak namudi in boftaho hujayrahoi shaklan tagyiryoftai khosiyati nakhi mushakro doshta mansub ast. Mushakhoi skelet az boftahoi mushakii kundalangrakh arkib yoftaand. Torhoi mushakii on ba namudi dasta jam shudaand. Az dokhili torhoi mushaki rishtahoi boriki safedaho meguzarand, ki qobiliyati kutohshavi, kashishkhurii mushakro ba amal meorand.

mushakho-300x184Mushakhoi dil ham monandi mushakhoi skelet az boftahoi mushakii kundalangrakh iboratand. In nakhho dar joyhoi muayyan ba ham payvast meshavand va in tavri payvastshavi imkon medihad, ki mushakhoi dil tez kashish khurand. Mushakhoi suftaro faqat dar uzvhoi dokhili: raghoikhun, ruda, masona va gayraho didan mumkin ast.

Hosiyati boftahoi suftai mushak dar on ast, ki onho sust kashish mekhurand. Sokhti mushakho. Mushakhoi skelet az bandchai nakhhoi kundalangrakhi mushak iboratand. Ba har kadom mushak raghoi khungard va asab hamroh meshavand. Bo lifofahoi boftai payvastkunanda pushonida shuda, ba vositai payho ba ustukhon chaspidaand. Mushakhoi asosii badani odam az qismi pesh va aqib dar rasmhoi 33 va 33a nishon doda shudaand.

Naqshi sistemai asab dar tanzimi faoliyati mushak. Hamai mushakhoi badan 3 khosiyatro doroand:
1) mutaassirshavi;
2) guzaronidani hayajon;
3) kashishkhuri.

Dar mushakhoi badan torhoi asabhoi hissiyot va harakat mavjudand. Habarho tavassuti torhoi asabi hissiyot az retseptorhoi pust, mushakho, payho, bugumho ba sistemai markazii asab meoyand. Habarho inchunin ba vositai neyronhoi harakat az harommagz ba mushakho meguzarand va dar natija mushakho kashish mekhurand. Hamin tavr, kashishkhurii mushakho dar organizm ba tavri reflektori anjom meyobad. Ba neyronhoi harakati harommagz khabarhoi magzi sar, az on jumla, qismi nimkurahoi kalon tasir merasonad. In harakatro gayriikhtiyori mekunad. Mushakhoi kashishkhurda qismhoi gunoguni badanro ba harakat medarorand va sababi joyivazkunii organizm yo nigoh doshtani holati muayyani on dar fazo megardand.
Mushakhoi qatkunanda, rostkunanda va muvofiqati onho. Dar vaqti yagon khel harakat kardani odam du guruhi ba ham muqobili mushakho – mushakhoi qatkunanda va mushakhoi rostkunandai bugumho amal mekunand.

Hangomi kashish khurdani mushakhoi qatkunanda va dar yak vaqt sust shudani mushakhoi rostkunanda qatshavii bandho ba amal meoyad. Ba hamdigar muvofiqat kardani kori mushakhoi qatkunanda va rostkunanda dar natijai dar harommagz ba navbat ba vujud omadani jarayoni ba hayajonoi va bozdori imkonpazir megardad. Masalan, mushakhoi qatkunandai dast dar natijai ba hayajon omadani neyronhoi harakati harommagz kashish mekhurand. Dar yak vaqt mushakhoi rostkunanda sust meshavand.

mushakho-768x435

In ba bozdorii neyronhoi harakat vobasta ast. Mushakhoi qatkunandayu rostkunandai bugumho mumkin ast dar yak vaqt dar holati susti boshand. CHunonchi, mushakhoi daste, ki ba qad ozod partofta shudaast, sust meboshand. Hangomi bardoshtani yagon bor yo mashq kardan kashishkhurii hardu namudi mushakhoro mushohida namudan mumkin ast.

Kori mushak. Mushakho kashish khurda, ba ustukhon chun fishang tasir merasonand va kori mekhanikiro ijro mekunand. Har yak kashishkhurii mushak bo sarshavii neru (energiya) vobasta ast. Manbai in neru tajziya va oksidshavii moddahoi organiki (karbogidratho, charbho, kislotai nukleinat) meboshand.
Moddahoi organiki dar nakhhoi mushak ba tagyiryobii kimiyovi duchor meoyand, ki on bo ishtiroki oksigen surat megirad. Dar natija mahsuloti tajziya, khususan gazi karbonat va ob hosil shuda, neru khorij megardad. Az bayni nakhhoi mushak raghoi khun meguzarand, ki organizmro az moddahoi gizoi va oksigen muntazam tamin namuda, moddahoi nodarkorii hosilshuda va duoksidi karbonro ba uzvhoi ikhroj mebarand.

Mondashavii mushak. Dar vaqti duru daroz, betanaffus kori jismoni kardan qobiliyati korii mushakho ohista-ohista kam meshavand. Muvaqqatan sust shudani qobiliyati kori mushakhoro mondashavi menomand. Badi kame dam giriftan qobiliyati korii mushakho az nav barqaror meshavad. Dar vaqti mashqhoi muntazami jismoni mushakho dertar monda meshavand, zero dar fosilai bayni kashishkhurii mushakho qobiliyati korii onho qisman barqaror megardad. CHi qadare ki mushakho tez-tez kashish khurand, hamon qadar tez monda meshavand. Qobiliyati korii mushakho inchunin az hajmi kor vobasta ast. CHi qadare ki kor bisyor boshad, hamon qadar mushakho teztar monda meshavand.

Mondashavii mushakho, ba qobiliyati korii onho tasir kardani surati kashishkhuri va andozai korro fiziologi rus I.M.Sechenov omukhtaast. Vay muayyan kardaast, ki hangomi kori jismoni surati miyonai kashishkhuri va andozai miyonai korro intikhob kardan muhim ast. Dar in surat mahsulnoki ziyod shuda, mondashavi dertar ogoz meyobad. Aqidae malum ast, ki guyo oromii mutlaq tarzi behtarini barqaror kardani qobiliyati kor meboshad. I.M.Sechenov nodurustii chunin aqidaro isbot kard. U dar sharoiti istirohati beharakat va dar vaqti yak korro ba kori digar ivaz kardan, yane hangomi istirohati faol chi tavr barqaror shudani faoliyati mehnatiro muqoisa kard. Malum shud, ki dar vaqti istirohati faol mondashavi tez bartaraf va faoliyati kori barvaqttar barqaror meshavad.

Savol

1. Kadom namudi mushakhoro medoned?
2. Mushakho kadom vazifaro ijro mekunand?
3. Muvofiqatii mushakhoi qatkunanda va rostkunanda dar chist?
4. Dar vaqti kori mushakho chi khel moddaho va ravandho manbai nerui meboshand?
5. Surati kashishkhuri va kor ba qobiliyati kori mushakho va mondashavii onho chi tasir merasonand?
6. Istirohati faol chist?
7. Asosguzori fiziologiyai mehnat kadom olim ast?

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