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Murakkabgulho va oilai onon

Az 250 000 namudi rastanihoi guldori mavjudbuda taqriban 25000 kheli onhoro rastanihoi oilai murakkabgul tashkil medihand. Rastanihoi ba oilai murakkabgulho taallukdoshta aksaran rastanihoi alafii bisyorsola buda, khelhoi rastanihoi yaksola, nimbutta, butta va darakhtiashon khele kam vomekhurad.

Bargi onho sodda, nazdbarg nadorand, kanorhoi pahnaki barg yaklukht yo hissashuda meboshad. Dar uzvhoi nashvii bisyor namoyandagoni in oila rohhoi shirabaror yo ziftkhorijkunanda mavjudand.

MurakabgulhoYAke az alomathoi khosi rastanihoi oilai murakkabgulho dar onho mavjud budani khushaguli (tudaguli) sabadak meboshad. Odatan gulhoi maydai rastanihoi murakkabgul dar sabadak sarjam omadaand. Inchunin, gulhoi khushagulro gulpechak, ki az bargchakhoi sabzrang iborat ast, pushidaast. Aksar vaqt khushaguli murakkabgulhoro sahvan hamchun yak gul mepindorand. CHunonchi, sabadaki zardi koqu ba nazar guyo yak guli kaloni sergulbargdor menamoyad.

Guli murakkabgulho gulpushi duchanda dorad, lekin kosacha yo inkishof nayoftaast yo in ki az muyakchahoi durusht iborat ast, ki onho tojpashmak (yane tojmuyak)-ro ba vujud meovarand. Tojgul az 5 gulbargi naychamonandi ba ham payvastshuda iborat ast. 5 gardbargi tojgul bo garddonhoyashon bo ham payvast gardida, naychai gardbargro ba vujud ovardaand, ki dar atrofi sutuncha joy giriftaand. Gul Doroi 1 tukhmdon buda, az gurai on mevadonakcha inkishof meyobad. Dar yak tarafi nugi tukhmi bisyor rastanihoi murakkabgul pashmak (yo “parashyutcha”) hast. In “parashyutcha” az tojpashmakho inkishof yofta, khususiyati mutobiqati dorad. Ba tufayli on tukhmi rasta- nikhoi murakkabgul tavassuti shamol pahn meshavad.

SHaklhoi guli murakkabgulho. Vobasta ba sokhtitojgul (gulbarghoyash) guli rastanihoi murakkabgul yakchand nav meshavad.

Gulhoi sabadaki qoqu yakkhela buda, shakli zabonakro giriftaand. Gulbargi har yak guli qoqu az poyon ba ham payvastu naychashakl buda, nugash ba zabonchai daroz monand ast. Guli chunin sokhtdoshtaro zabonchagul meguyand. Dar nugi gulbargi zabonchamonand izi panj dandonamonand hast. In nishon medihad, ki dar davrahoi qadim gulbarghoi 5-dandonadori qoqu alohida-alohida budand.

Vale, bo mururi zamon onho ba ham payvast shuda, guli zabonchamonandi 5-dandonadorro ba vujud ovardaand. Garddoni 5 gardbarg niz ba ham payvast shuda, nay- charo hosil kardaand, ki az bayni on sutunchai gardgirakash duparra meguzarad. Az gurai tukhmdon donai khele mayda, ki yak qabza pashmak (“parashyutcha”) va dumchai daroz dorad, inkishof meyobad.

 Hori morak rastanii alafii bisyorsola ast. Sabadaki on faqat az naychagulho tarkib yoftaast. Mevai khori morak donaest, ki dar nugash tojpashmak dorad va ba tufayli shamol

Dar guli chashmi gusola agar dar mobayni sabadak naychagulho mavjud boshand, dar kanori on gulhoi qifshakl joygirand. Gulhoi kaloni qifshakl na gardbarg dorand, na tukhmdon. Binobar on, vazi- fai onho faqat jalb kardani hasharot meboshad. Az gurahoi naychagulho donaho (tukhmho) inkishof meyoband, ki har kadomi onkho tojpashmak dorand.

Rastanii chashmi gusola asosan dar margzorho, kanori rohu payrohaho, zaminhoi bekorkhobida nashunamo mekunad va gulhoi saba- dakash rangi gulobi dorad.

Rastanihoi oilai murakkabgulho
Rasmi 56. Rastanihoi oilai murakkabgulho

Bisyor rastanihoi oilai murakkabgulho rastanihoi zeboyu diloroi oroishiand (masalan, guli kavkab, guli dovudi, qashqargul, marvorid va gayraho) va onho ba husni bogu gulgashtho husn zam mekunand.

Ba oilai murakkabgulho bisyor rastanihoe, ki khosiyati tabobati dorand, az qabili bobuna, hameshabahor, alafi garmi yo khori sagak,
sokala, kosni (shirka- Hak), sapali shutur va gayraho mansuband. Bobuna (bobunai davoi) giyohi yaksolaest, ki doroi bui balandu tez ast. Dar sabadakash du navi gul joygir ast. Dar mobayni sabadak naychagulhoi zardi tillorang va dar atrofi on zabonakgulhoi safed joygirand. Mevaash donai darozruya ast.

Bobunai doruiro dar nohiyahoi kuhi parvarish mekunand. Lekin vay beshtar dar shakli khudruy, dar zaminhoi bekorkhobida, partovjoyho, nazdi binohoi istiqomati va chun alafi begona dar bayni ziroatkhoi kishovarzi meruyad.

Hushaguli sabadaki navrasi bobuna bo mikdori ziyod ravgani efir dorad va hamchun ashyoi khom baroi hosil kardani doru istifoda meshavad.

Agarchande oilai murakkabgulho mikdori ziyodi rastanihoi guldorro darbar girad ham, lekin dar khojagihoi kishovarzi miqdori kami onhoro parvarish mekunand. Muhimtarini in rastaniho inhoyand: oftobparast (vartoj), noki zamini yo topiiambur, saflor (masar) va gayraho.

Oftobparast rastanii kalonjussai yaksola ast. Bargi kaloni sodda dorad. Dar okhiri poyai on khushaguli kaloni sabadak joy giriftaast. Hamai gulhoi sabadak naychagul buda, gulhoi kanori sabadak zabonakgul meboshand. Zabonakgulhoi kanori garddon va gardgirak nadorand. Onho tankho hasharotro ba khud jalb mekunand. Dar yak sabadaki oftobparast to 1000 gul mavjud ast. Az gurai bordorshudai on mevadona inkishof meyobad.

Dar tarkibi tukhmi oftobparast vobasta ba navhoyash az 30-35 foiz to 50-60 foiz ravgan mavjud ast. Ravgani oftobparast mahsuloti purqimati gizoi ast. Onro dar istehsolot baroi tayyor namudani margarin, halvo, sobun va mavodi rangubor (alif, lak) istifoda mebarand. Partovi ravgankashii on (kunjora) khuroki sergizoi chorvo ba hisob meravad. Inchunin az bargu poyai on baroi khuroki chorvo silos tayyor khmekunand.

Vatani oftobparast Amerikai SHimoli meboshad. Vay dar on jo ba tavri khudruy vomekhurad. Bori avval oftobparastro ispaniho soli 1510 ba Avrupo ovardand. Sipas Pyotri I onro az Gollandiya ba Rossiya ovard. Dar Rossiya onro avval chun rastanii oroishi parvarish mekardand. Taqriban badi duyunim asr khususiyati ravgandihandagii onro oshkor kardand.

Ba juz oftobparast, topinamburro niz ba sifati rastanii pur- qimati gizoi parvarish mekunand.

  1. Alomathoi khosi oilai murakkabgulho kadomhoyand?
  2. Dar sabadaki murakkabgulho chi khel gulho joygirand?
  3. Gulhoi zabonchamonand az gulhoi naychagul bo chi farq mekunand?
  4. Tukhmi (doni) rastanihoi murakkabgul chi tavr pahn meshavand va baroi in chi guna mutobiqat paydo kardaand?
  5. Namoyandagoni nisbatan mamuli oilai murakkabgulhoro nombar kuned.
  6. Az kadom rastanii in oila ravgan istehsol mekunand?
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