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Muhofizati rastanihoi guldori nodir va nestshudaistoda

Muhofizati rastanihoi guldori nodir va nestshudaistoda, ki ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston” dokhil karda shudaand

Olami nabotot manbai hayot dar rui Zamin ast. Dar haqiqat, mavjudiyati inson, hayvonot va organizmhoi nihoyat khurdandoza (mikroorganizmho)-ro be nabotot tasavvur kardan gayriimkon ast. Dar ravandi fotosintez, ki faqat khosi rastanihoi sabz meboshad, az yak taraf, agar havo (atmosfera) az oksigen boy gardad, az tarafi digar, az gazi barziyodi karbonat (duoksidi karbon) toza megardad.

Rastanihoi nodire, ki ba «Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston» dokhil karda shudaand
Rasmi 75. Rastanihoi nodire, ki ba «Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston» dokhil karda shudaand

Fotosintez hodisai hayotbakhshe meboshad, ki dar natichai on dar bargi sabzi rastaniho az gazi karbonat va ob bo ishtiroki bevositai pigmenti sabz (khlorofill) energiyai nuri oftob furu burda shuda, boisi dar barg hosil shudani qandi angur (glyukoza) va khorij gardidani oksigen megardad. Az qandi angur va mahluli na-makhoi madani, ki az khok ba tufayli resha jabbida meshavand, angishtobhoi murakkab, safeda, ravgan va digar moddahoi baroi hayotguzaronii rastani zarur khosil meshavand. Inson, hayvonot va mikroorganizmho ehtiyojoti ba in moddaho doshtai khudro ba tufayli rastaniho qone megardonand. Hamin tavr, rastanii sabz dar ravandi fotosintez mahsuloti avvalini biologiro hosil mekunad va kulli mavjudoti olamro bo oksigen tamin mesozad.

Aksariyati rastanihoi mazru az rastanihoi khudruy paydo shudaand. Az in jost, ki baroi peshburdi korkhoi seleksioni (navofari), yane baroi ba vujud ovardani navhoi gunogunu serhosili ziroathoi kishovarzi, rastanihoi khudruyro istifoda mebarand.

Rastani az khudash moddahoi gunoguni bukhorshavanda (fitonsidho) khorij mekunad, ki onho qobiliyati nobud kardani bakteriyahoy kasaliovarro dorand. Rastaniho inchunin sadokhoi balandro furu nishonda, gardu changi havoro ba khud girifta, pokizagii havoi mahalro tamin mekunand. Binobar on, tashakkul va tagyiryobii iqlimi muhiti zist ba nabotot zich vobasta ast.

Rastani qobiliyati balandi obnigohdori doshta, khokro az shustashavi nigoh medorad.

Jihathoi zararovari baze rastaniho az on iborat ast, ki onho ba sifati alafhoi begona (khudruy) dar bayni ziroathoi kishovarzi ruida, sabzishu inkishofi onho va korkardi khokro (zaminro) dushvor megardonand. Inchunin, baze rastaniho bo tarkiboti zakhrnokashon metavonand chorvoi khonagiro zahrolud kunand.

Hamin tavr, dar vaqti bo rastaniho munosibat kardan bisyor khu- susiyathoi khosi onhoro boyad ba nazar girift. Vale, bazan dakho- lati gunogunjabhai inson ba tabiat boisi tamoman kamshumor va hatto nobud shudani bisyor namudhoi nodiri rastanikho megardad. Masalan, inkishofi bosurati sohahoi gunoguni sanoat, sokhtmoni zavodu fabrikaho, kombinatho, afzudani mikdori shahrhoi navbunyod, mahalhoi gunoguni aholinishii, afzun shudani sarshumori chorvoi khonagi, sokhtani rohhoi navi ohanu moshingard, muntazam az khud kardan va obyori kardani zaminhoi bekorkhobida, koftani kanalhoi obyorikunanda, sokhtani obanborhoi suni va digar sohakhoi faoliyati inson nametavonad ba holati muhiti atrof va alalkhusus ba olami nabotot betasir boshad.

Oqibati chunin tasirrasoniho boisi on shudand, ki dar Tojikiston dar ayni zamon 208 namudi rastanihoi guldor (199 namudi rastanihoi alafi va 27 namudi rastanihoi darakhtiyu buttagi) dar holati nestshavi qaror dorand. Binobar on, baroi hifzi onho, in rastanihoi nodir va dar holati nestshavi qarordoshta ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston” dokhil karda shudaand. “Kitobi Surkh” – kitobhujjati ilmii baynalkhalqi ast, ki oid ba nabotot va hayvonoti hifzshavanda va rohhoi barqaror kardani onho malumothoi muhimu mufassal medihad.

Ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston” az rastanihoi darakhti va buttagi chunin rastaniho, az qabili bodomi Vavilov, dulonai darvozi, olui darvozi va tojikistoni, noki kayoni, khurmoi muqarrari va gayraho dokhil karda shudaand.

Guruhi digar rastaniho, ki guli zebo doshta, avzali bahor me- shukufand az jumla namudhoi ziyodi guli lola, sichak (sich), guli holmon, guli siyohgush, guli navruzi, boychechak va gayraho niz dar kholati nestshavi qaror doshta, ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston” dokhil karda shudaand.

Az 87 namudi piyozi khudruy, ki dar Tojikiston meruyad, 17-toash ba “Kitobi Surkh” dokhil karda shudaast. Inho (siyohalaf, gushi buzak, modil) rastanihoe meboshand, ki az sababi har sol jamovari kardani qismi ruizaminii onho, piyozakashon sol az sol kamquvvat shuda, az sabzishu inkishof bozmemonad. Namudi digari piyoz ansal yo piyozi anzur meboshad, ki onro baroi namaki kunondan ba miqdori ziyod jamovari mekunand. Dar natija sol az sol kamsha- vii hududi maydoni nashunamoi in namudi piyoz niz ba mushohida merasad. Va vay beshubha muhtoji hifz ast.

CHi tavre ki malum ast, zira rastanii bisyorsolai mamulu khushbuy ast. Vayro hamchun rastanii dorugi va baroi khushtam kardani taom istifoda mebarand. Jamovarii zira bo rohi darav kardani qismi ruizaminii on dar davrai pesh az pukhtani tukhmash surat megirad. CHunin munosibati gayrioqilona imkoniyati az tukhmash sabzidanu afzoish kardani ziraro nomumkin megardonad. Az in ru, zira niz ba hifzi qonun ehtiyoji komil dorad.

Rastanii zeboi digar, ki ba “Kitobi Surkh” dokhil karda shudaast, holmon meboshad. Holmon okhirhoi mohi mart gul mekunad. Odamon va sayyohon az gulhoi zeboi on guldastaho sokhta, khususiyati az tukhm afzoish kardani onro mahdud mekunand. Az digar taraf, mardumi dehot (tahjoy) piyozaki onro baroi hosil kardani nishoista jamovari mekunand. In har du omili nomatlub boisi kam shudani maydonhoi holmon gardidaand.

Baroi hifzu peshgiri kardani kamchini va nobudshavii rastanihoi nodir, meboyad tamomi mardumi Tojikiston nisbati onho gamkhori zohir kunand. Dar in ikdom khususan muallimon va khonandagoni maktabhoi talimoti hamagoni va donishjuyon faolona ishtirok namuda, boyad hissaguzor boshand. To ki in rastanihoi nodir na tanho hifz karda shavand, balki baroi ziyod kardani hududi pahnshavii onho az sidqi dil gamkhori zohir kunand. Muhofizati rastaniho boyad qarzi shahrvandii har yak insoni sohibkhirad boshad.

  1. Rastaniho dar hayoti inson chi ahamiyat dorand?
  2. Ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston” chand namudi rastanihoi guldor dokhil karda shudaand?
  3. “Kitobi Surkh” chi guna hujjat, kitob ast?
  4. Kadom rastanihoi nodiri darakhtiyu buttagiro medoned?
  5. Giyohhoi barvaqt gulkunandai nodirro nombar kuned.
  6. Bo chi sababho rastaniho kamyoftu nodir meshavand?

 

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