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Muborizai kishovarzon dar Amerikai Lotini

Zurovarii zamindoron, kalisoi katoliki va shirkathoi khoriji ba on ovarda rasond, ki aksariyati aholii dehoti Amerikai Lotini ba peonho – kishovarzoni kamzamin, batrakho va mardikorone, ki yak umr az nasl ba nasl ba sohiboni zamin tobe buda, dar qashshoqii mudhishi doimi zindagoni mekardand, tabdil meyoftand.

Dar Boliviya, Peru va Ekvador dar okhirhoi asri XIX avvali asri XX dayrhoi ziyode mavjud budand, ki dar ikhtiyorashon zaminhoi nopaydokanor doshtand. Peonho va kishovarzone, ki dar “zaminhoi muqaddas” mehnat mekardand, ba jazohoi jismoni giriftor meshudand. Masalan, chunin odat pahn shuda bud: agar khujain yo ki nozir peonro zanad, pas peon boyad dar nazdi khujain duzonu zada, baroi munosibati “mehrubonona” tashakkur izhor kunad. Dar on joe, ki gulomdori boqi monda bud, khujain metavonist hatto gulomi khudro qatl kunad.

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Dar aksari mamlakathoi Amerikai Lotini tez-tez shurishhoi kishovarzon ba amal meomadand. Dar solhoi 80-um in shurishho makhsusan dar Braziliya az hama shadidtar budand. Dar in jo shurishhoi kishovarzon bo shurishhoi zangiyon payvasta nerui buzurgero tashkil menamudand.

Braziliya, ki dar ibtidoi asri XIX az zulmi mustamlikavii Portugaliya ozod shuda bud, misli mamlakathoi digari Amerikai Lotini jumhuri neyu davlati mutlaq shud. Kishovarzon va gulomoni zangii shurishbardoshta soli 1889 burjuaziyai Braziliyaro majbur kardand, ki mutlaqiyatro barham zada, mamlakatro jumhuri elon kunad. Vale az elon karda shudani chumhuri vazi zindagonii kishovarzon behtar nashud. Binobarin oshubhoi kishovarzoni Braziliya idoma yoftand.

Dar ogozi asri XX shurishhoi kaloni kishovarzon inchunin Argentinaro ham faro giriftand. Onho islohoti zamin, past kardani hajmi pardokhti andoz va ijorapulii zaminro taqozo mekardand.

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