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Muborizai davdathoi imperialistii Evropa baroi zabti Habashiston

Bahori soli 1884 hukumati Angliya bo maqsadi neruhoi mahdichiyoni Sudonro ba Habashiston jalb namudan va artishi anglisii dar muhosirai shurishgaron budaro khalos kardan chorahoi zaruri andeshid. Angliya namoyandagoni khudro ba nazdi Iohannesi IV rayon mekunad. Dar in jo anglisho sozishnomaero ba imzo rasonidand, ki muvofiqi on Iohannesi IV uhdador shuda, ki baroi difoi istehkomhoi dar qad-qadi sarhadhoi shimoli va shimolu sharqii Habashiston budai anglisho dasti yori daroz mekunad. Lashkari Habashiston mahdichiyonro az in istehkomho zada gardonida, garnizonhoi Angliyaro ozod kardand. Ana, hamin tavr Habashiston ba changi nolozimi ziddi mahdichiyoni Sudon kashida shud.

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Dar ayni zamon anglisho rozi shudand, ki bandari yagonai bahrii Habashiston – Massaua ba Italiya suporida shavad. Badi in italiyaviho ba daruntari mamlakat daromada, az shimol ba mulkhoi negus Iohannesi IV tahdid menamudand. Italiyaviho dar muboriza bar ziddi Iohannesi IV pinhoni bo Menelik zabon yak kardand. Mulkhoi Iohannes dar muhosira mondand: az shimol Italiya hujum kard, az garb – mahdichiyon, az tarafi janubu taroi qabilahoi danakil, ki onhoro italiyaviho ba in hujum ruhbaland mekardand, Lashkari Menelik boshad, dar nazdikii sarhadhoi janubii mamlakat mustaqar bud. Mahdichiyon ba daruntari Habashiston daromada, soli 1887 Gondarro ishgol namuda, qismi ziyodi muzofoti Dambeyyaro kharob kardand. Soli oyanda onho hujumi khudro az nav takror kardand, lekin in dafa az tarafi hokimoni mahalli Mikael, Mangashi va Alula torumor karda shudand. Dar yake az muhoribaho Iohannesi IV zakhmi margovar bardosht. Dar chunin sharoiti mushkil dar bayni hokimoni Habashiston yagonagiyu vahdat vujud nadosht.

Avvali soli 1887 italiyaviho az nav ba Habashiston hujum kardand, vale dar muhoribai nazdi Dogali shikast khurda, majbur shudand, ki ba jonibi bandari Massaua aqibnishini kunand. Badi in shikast italiyaviho artishi khudro ba Eritreya ravon kardand. Aknun artishi Italiya bo hamrohii garnizoni peshaki dar sarhadhoi hamonjoii Habashiston joydoshta ba 25 hazor nafar rasid. Dar barobari in hukumati Italiya soli 1888 namoyandai khud Litonelliro ba nazdi hokimi SHoa – Menelik ravon karda, ibroz dosht, ki uro hamchun negusi Habashiston etirof mekunad va tayyor ast, ki ba u baroi muboriza bar ziddi Iohannesi IV yorii harbiyu puli firistonad. Ba ivazi in yori Menelnki II boyad mulkhoi Asmara va Kerenaro voguzor mekard. Menelik taklifi italiyavihoro qabul kard, vale ba muqobili Iohannesi IV barnakhost. Az jonibi Iohannesi IV ham bar ziddi Italiya chang nakard. YAne mavqei betarafiro ikhtiyor kard.

Soli 1889 Meneliki II bo Italiya dar borai dusti va tijorat shartnoma bast. Muvofiqi in sanad u az tarafi anglisho istilo karda shudani Eritreyaro etirof namud. Baroi guzashtkunii Eritreya Habashiston az Angliya 38 hazor miltiq va 20 tupkhona tuhfa girift va muvofiqi qarordodi ilovagi Angliya ba Meneliki II ba mablagi 4 mln. f.-st. vombarg dod.

Badi soli 1889 dar jangi ziddi mahdichiyon halok gardidani Iohannesi IV ba takhtu toji negusi negestii Habashiston Meneliki II sohib shud. Ba u muyassar gardid, ki muttahidkunni Habashistonro, ki Fyodori II ogoz karda bud, davom doda, qalamravi zeri itoati khudro boz ham vasetar kunad. Ohista-ohista aksariyati viloyatho va qabilahoi Habashiston hokimiyati Meneliki II-ro etirof kardand. Vale solhoi 90-um Italiya ba muqobili Habashiston az nav hujumi gusturdai khudro ogoz namuda, ba in ravand khalal rasonid. Dar muhoribahoi  sershumori in jang goh yak taraf va goh tarafi digar dastbolo meshud va nihoyat soli 1896 dar Adua artishi Habashiston sipohi Italiyaro torumor kard. Hudi hamon sol hayati vakiloni Italiya ba poytakhti navi Habashiston sh. Addis-Abeba (on soli 1887 asos yoftaast) omada, ba Sozishnomai sulh imzo guzoshg. Az rui in sozishnoma Habashiston hamchun davlati sohibistiqlol etirof karda shud. Sarhadi Habashiston muvaqqatan (to muanyankunii nihoii on) az tariqi khati demarkatsioni qad-qadi daryoi Mareb muqarrar karda shud. Az Habashiston shikast khurdan baroi Italiya vaznin aftod. On majbur shud, ki ba in davlag 10 mln. lir tovoni jang ham bidihad.

Dar muboriza bar ziddi Italiya Habashiston pinhoni az Faronsa yori megirift. Ba ivazi in neki soli 1894 Faronsa az Meneliki II baroi sokhtmoni rohi ohan ijozatnoma girift. Dodani in ijozatnoma manoi onro dosht, ki dar siyosati khorijii khud Habashiston beshtar ba sud Faronsa mayl mekunad.

Badi shikast khurdani Italiya muttahidkunii Habashiston ba okhir rasid.

Dar barobari ba Habashiston cap darovardani sarmoyai Faronsa Meneliki II baroi pasttar karda in mavqei on ba Angliya niz guzasht mekard. Baroi hamin u az sokhtani inshooti gidrotekhnikii Faronsa dar kuli Tana dast kashid. Muvofiqi Sozishnomai bayni Habashiston va Sudon az 15 mayi soli 1902 chunin inshoothoro minbad tanho bo rozigii general-gubernatori Sudon sokhtan mumkin bud. In sozishnoma sarhadi bayni Habashiston va Sudonro niz muayyai namud. Habashiston ba anglisho ijozat dod, ki dar mamlakat rohi ohani Sudonro bo Uganda payvastkunanda sozand. Fishori minbadai anglisho ba on ovarda rasond, ki mohi apreli soli 1905 Meneliki II ijozatnomai sokhtmoni rohi ohani shirkati faronsaviro bekor kard.

To ogozi Jangi YAkumi jahoni Habashiston obekti taloshi Angliya, Faronsa, Italiya va Germaniya meshavad. Dar in mamlakat davlathoi imperialistii Evropa mintaqai muayyanero ba dast medarovardand. Inchunin baroi dar Habashiston mavqei beshtar paydo namudan dar bayni khud raqobat ham mekardand. Az soli 1908 cap karda munosibathoi Habashiston bo Faronsa nisbat ba davlathoi digari nomburda behtar meshavad. Mahz baroi hamin Habashiston baroi sokhtmoni rohi ohan ba in davlat ijozatnoma medihad.

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