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Mubodilai moddaho va tabdili energiya

A.gar rastaniho az muhiti beruna moddahoi baroi onho zaruriro muntazam qabul nakunand zindagi karda nametavonand. Organizme, ki gizo namegirad, nafas namekashad oqibat nobud meshavad. Dar navbati khud, dar ravandi faoliyati hayotiash rastani baze moddahoro ba muhiti beruna khorij mekunad: oksigenro dar natijai fotosintez; gazi karbonatro dar vakti nafaskashi; obi barziyodro dar shakli bug va qatra, tavassuti bargash; resha ba khok baze kislotahoi organikiro khorij mekunad va gayraho. In manoi onro dorad, ki dar bayni organizmi zinda va muhiti beruna hamesha mubodilai moddaho idoma dorad.

harakatkunii-obDar har yak hujayrai zinda doimo az moddahoi nisbatan sodda moddahoi mu- rakkab hosil meshavand. Masalan, dar vaqti fotosintez dar hujayrahoi sabzi barg az ob va gazi karbonat qand hosil meshavad. Sipas, az qand metavonad ohar, selyulloza va digar moddaho hosil shavand. Dar hujayrahoi resha namakhoi madani bo digar moddaho payvast meshavand. Dar barobari hosil shudani moddahoi gunogun hatman ra- vandhoi mutaqobila niz meguzarand: vayronshavi va tajziyai moddahoi murak- kab to moddahoi sodda (masalan, dar vaqti nafaskashi qand to gazi karbonatu ob tajziya meshavad). Qisme az in moddahoi sodda agar ba berun khorij gar- dand, qismi digarashon hamchun mavod baroi hosil shudani moddahoi nav dar dokhili organizmho sarf meshavand.

Hamin tavr, tabdilyobii doimii moddaho dar hujayrahoi zinda, furubari, hosilkuni, vayronshavi va khorijshavii in moddaho mubodilai moddaho nomida meshavad. In alomati asosii hayot dar rui Zamin ast. Rasmi OB. Harakat kardani moddaho dar rastani, dar lundaho va reshamevaho. Zakhira shudani moddahoi organiki (naqsha)
Dar vaqti tajziyashavii moddahoi murakkab to moddahoi sodda energiya khorij meshavad. Agar tukhm yo gul boshiddat nafas kashad energiya dar shakli garmi khorij meshavad (garmshavii tukhmro ba khotir ovared). Hususan, in holat hangomi sukhtani mavodhoi paydoishashon rastanigi  hezum, angishtsang, torf baralo zohir meshavad. Ener- giyai dar onho mahfuzbuda dar shakli garmi khorij meshavad.Qayd kardan lozim ast, ki hosilshavii moddahoi murakkab az moddahoi sodda sarfi energiyaro (neruro) talab mekunad. Dar vaqti fotosintez energiyai nuri oftob istifoda burda meshavad va on dar namudi moddahoi murakkabi hosilshuda (qand, ravgan, safeda) nigoh doshta meshavad.

Lekin qismi ziyodi energiyai dar ravandi nafaskashi khorijshuda barabas (gum) nameshavad, baroi hosil shudani bisyor moddahoi ba rastani zarur sarf meshavad.

Hamin tariq, mubodilai moddaho khamesha ba mubodilai energiya “ furubari yo khorij kardani on zich aloqamand ast. Manbai asosii energiya baroi rastaniho — fotosintez va nafaskashi ba hisob meravad.

  1. SHumo mubodilai moddahoro chi tavr mefahmed?
  2. Tavassuti kadom ravandho mubodilai moddaho surat megirad?
  3. Oyo organizmhoi zinda be mubodilai moddaho zindagi karda metavonand?
  4. Mubodilai moddahoro dar rastaniho bo misolho sharh dihed.
  5. Dar mubodilai moddaho mubodilai energiya chi tavr surat megirad?
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