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Mubodilai nerugi. Gigienai Khurok

Mubodilai neru dar organizm. Baroi ravandhoi gunoguni faoliyati hayotii organizm (ba vujud omadani moddaho, kori mushakho, nigohdorii harorati badan) dar yak shabonaruz qarib 10500 kJ (2500 kkal) energiya (neru) zarur ast. Manbai on neruest, ki dar bandhoi kimiyovii molekulahoi moddahoi uzvi (safeda, charb, karbogidrat) mavjud ast va az khurok girifta meshavad.

gigienai-xurok

Dar organizm muntazam ravandi murakkabi mubodilai nerui ba amal meoyad. Dar natijai baze mubodilaho organizm az neru boy shuda, dar digarashon onro talaf medihad. Chunonchi, hangomi oksidshavi va tajziyai glyukoza, inchunin digar payvastagihoi uzvi dar hujayraho nerui kimiyovi ozod shuda, ba nerui barqi va mekhaniki tabdil meyobad.

Masalan, nerui barqii impulsi asab ba torhoi asab dodani akhborro tamin karda, nerui mekhaniki kashishkhurii mushakhoi skelet, mushakhoi dilu diafragmaro tamin mekunad. Hamai in namudhoi neru ba nerui garmi tabdil meyoband. Yak qismi garmi baroi muntazam nigoh doshtani harorati badan istifoda shuda, ziyodatii onro organizm ba muhiti atrof ikhroj mekunad.

Hamin tariq organizmi odam ba qonuni baqoi neru itoat mekunad, neru paydo va nest nameshavad, vay tanho tagyir meyobad. Sarf kardani neru dar korhoi gunogun. Nerui organizm sarfakardaro khurok purra mesozad. Miqdori nerui dar yak shabonaruz sarfkardai odamoni kasbu korashon gunogunro donista, baroyashon meyori khurok muqarrar namudan lozim ast.

Muayyan shudaast, ki odami ba mehnati jismoni mashgul buda ziyodtar neru sarf mekunad. Az nazar guzaronidani jadvali 1 ba in guvohi medihad.  Kasbho – Qimati umumii energiyai meyori khurok ba hisobi kJ:

  1. Kasbhoe, ki ba mehnati jismoni aloqa nadorand 13 474
  2. Kasbhoe, ki bo mehnati mekhanikonida aloqamandand 15 086
  3. Kasbhoe, ki bo mehnati mekhanikonida yo qisman mekhanikonida aloqamandand – 17 270
  4. Kasbhoe, ki bo mehnati vaznini mekhanikonida aloqamandand- 19 942

Muayyan kardani meyori khurok. Baroi nigohdoshtani salomati va qobiliyati korii odam muhim ast, ki khuroki harruzai u joi nerui dar yak shabonaruz sarfkardaashro girifta tavonad. Bo in maqsad baroi odamoni gunogunkasb meyori khurok tartib medihand. Baroi muayyan kardani chunin meyor pesh az hama donistan lozim ast, ki ozuqa chi miqdor zakhirai nerui dorand, qimati nerugiash chi guna ast. Usulhoi tadqiqoti hozirazamon imkoniyat medihand, ki meyori khuroki har yak odam durust muayyan karda shavad. Hangomi tartib dodani meyori khurok talaboti organizm ba tamomi moddahoi gizoi – safedaho, charbho,

karbogidratho, vitaminho va namakhoi minerali ba etibor girifta meshavad. Ba odamoni kalonsol dar yak shabonaruz qarib 85-110 gr safeda (az jumla 48 gr safedai az hayvonot giriftashuda), 100-104 gr charb (az jumla 30 gr ravgani nabotot) va qarib 580 gr karbogidratho zarurand.

Meyori khurok ehtiyoji nerugii organizmro qone gardonida, ba ivazi hujayrahoi talafshuda paydo shudani hujayrahoi nav, korshoyamii khubi odam va ba bemorihoi siroyatkunanda muqobiliyat karda tavonistani uro tamin mekunad.

Botartib khurok khurdan garavi salomatist. Yagon mahsulot talaboti organizmro ba tamomi moddahoi zaruri purra qone kunonda nametavonad. Masalan, gusht har khel aminokislotahoi zaruri doshta boshad ham, ba miqdori kofi moddahoi minerali va vitaminhoro nadorad. Non bisyor karbogidrat doshta, digar moddahoi ba organizm zaruriro nadorad. Az hamin sabab ba khuroki odam mahsuloti sersafeda, ravgani hayvonot va nabotot, sabzavoti servitaminu az namakhoi minerali boyro ilova mekunand. Khuroki rastanigi bisyor nasj (kletchatka) dorad va on boisi kashishkhurii devorahoi medayu ruda megardad.

Betartib istemol kardani khurok boisi bisyor bemoriho megardad. Aksar odamoni sergusht azobi farbehi mekashand. Farbehi tanho sergushti nabuda, bemoriest, ki dar on vayronshavii mubodilai moddaho, kori dil, ragho va uzvhoi harakat ba vujud meoyad. Farbehi qobiliyati korii odamonro kam mekunad. Dalelhoi omori (statistiki) az on shahodat medihand, ki dar sinni az 40 to 50-solagi odamoni farbeh nisbat ba odamoni vaznashon mutadil du barobar beshtar mefavtand.

Sababi farbehshavi purkhuri va sust shudani faoliyati mushakho meboshad. Dar natija muvozinati bayni dokhilshavi va sarfi neru dar organizm vayron meshavad. Istemoli beandozai charbu karbogidratho (masnuoti qannodi) odamro farbeh mekunad. Az in hisob arzishi nerui meyori yakshabonaruzii odam nisbat ba nerui sarfkardai u beshtar vobasta va jussaash toraft gafstar meshavad. Vayron kardani rejai khurok (ruze, yak du bor kam khurdan va purkhuri pesh az khob) odamro farbeh mekunad.

Baroi farbeh nashudan bisyortar sayrugasht karda, ba varzish va kori jismoni mashgul shudan lozim ast. Kori jismoni na tanho sarfi nerui organizmro ziyod mekunad, balki ba sistemai dilu ragho, nafaskashi, mushakho va asab tasiri musbat merasonad.

Rejai durusti khurokkhuri dar vaqti muayyan 3-4 marotiba dar yak ruz ast. Khuroki shomro boyad soati 19.00 istemol namud. Rejai khuroki maktabbacha. Ba talaba zarur ast, ki pesh az sarshavii dars khuroki gushtdor, jurgotdor, mohidor yo shirdor khurad. Safedai onho baroi sabzishi organizmi kudakon zarur ast. Nahorii sergizo qobiliyati kori fikri va jismonii odamro behtar mekunad.

Takhminan soati 11 (bad az darsi seyum) choy yo qahvaro bo nonu ravgan yo bo non khurdan lozim ast. Soati 2-3 dar khona yo oshkhonai maktab khuroki peshin khurdan lozim ast. Khuroki peshin boyad garm, gushtdor yo mohidor buda, az nushobai meva va sharbati meva iborat boshad. Khuroki shomi maktabbacha boyad shirdor yo sabzavotdor boshad va onro 2 soat pesh az khob istemol kardan zarur ast.

Bisyor istemol kardani ravgani hayvonot, karbogidrathoi zudhazm (non, bulochka, shiravori), dar khurok kam kardani ravgani nabotot, shiru mahsuloti shiri, mevayu sabzavot boisi vayronshavii mubodilai charbho va avji barmahali bemorihoi dilu ragho megardad. In khuroki nodurust meboshad.

Nimgurusnagii doimi, parhez, nimseri ba organizmi inkishofyobanda zarari kalon dorad. Pagohiruzi kam yo sarosemavor khurok khurdan yo umuman be nahori ba maktab raftani bachagon noravost. Rohravon, hangomi kitobkhoni yo tamoshoi televizor khurok khurdan mumkin nest.

Hangomi damgiri yo korho sahroi khususiyathoi reja va khuroki maktabbacha boyad bo meyori muqarrarshudai gigieni muvofiqat kunad. Khuroke, ki dar vaqti sayohat yo boshishgohi sahroi pukhta meshavad, boyad khushsifat, bolazzat va harkhela boshad. Muvofiqi qoidahoi sanitari khurok boyad dar davomi 2 soati pas az pukhta shudanash istemol karda shavad.

Savolho:

  1. Dar organizm kadom mubodilahoi neru ba amal meoyand?
  2. Baroi chi sarfi shabonaruzii neruro muayyan kardan zarur ast?
  3. Meyori khurok chi khel tartib doda meshavad?
  4. Rejai bo tartibi khurok chist?
  5. Farbehshavi yo gurusnagi chi oqibat dorad?
  6. Rejai khuroki maktabbachagon boyad chi khel boshad?
  7. Charo sokinoni kishvarhoi qutbi bisyor khuroki ravganin mekhurand?
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