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Mubodilai modahoi organiki

Tavsifi umumi va ahamiyati mubodilai moddaho. Dar bayni organizmu muhiti muntazam mubodilai moddaho va neru ba amal meoyad. Az lahzai ba organizm dokhil shudani ob va moddahoi gizoi mubodilai moddahoyu muhiti beruni sar meshavad, yak qismi moddaho dar noyi hozima to haddi odditarin tajziya shuda, ba muhiti dokhili organizm – ba khun ba hujayraho dokhil meshavand. Dar hujayraho ravandi digargunihoi kimiyovii onho – biosintezi safedayu charbho va karbogidradhoi ba organizm khos, inchunin tajziyai payvastagihoi murakkabi organiki ba amal meoyad. Digargunshavii moddaho dar natijai tasiri fermentho ba vujud omada, bo rohi asabi – humorali tanzim meshavad.

mubodilai-moda

Mahsuli okhirini mubodilai moddaho bo peshob, najosat, araq va bo rohi nafas berun barovarda meshavad.

Silsilai murakkabi tabadduloti moddahoro dar organizm mubodilai moddaho menomand, ki on az lahzai ba organizm dokhil shudani onho to purra khorij shudani mahsuli tajziyaro dar bar megirad. Dar ravandi mubodilai moddaho organizm baroi bunyodi hujayraho modda va baroi ravandi hayotguzaroni neru megirand.

Mubodilai safedaho. Safedaho chun masolehi asosii tarkibi hujayravi khizmat mekunand. Bisyor korhoi muhim, ba monandi pahnshavii oksigen kashishkhurii mushakho ba safeda vobastaand.

Dar hujayra hamai reaksiyahoi khimiyavi tavassuti fermentho – safedaho tezonda shuda, az safedaho tamomi organoidhoi hujayraho ba vujud meoyad.

Safedaho khele gunogunand. Gunogunii safedaho dar on zohir megardad, ki az 20 navi aminokislotahoi bo yakdigar payvast shuda, molekulahoi gunogunsokhti safeda tashkil meyoband.

Mahsuloti nabotot va hayvonot safeda dorand. Dar rohi hozima safedahoi khurok to ba aminokislotaho tajziya shuda, ba khun medaroyand. Dar hujayraho az aminokislotaho safedai ba organizm khos sintez meshavad. Dar yak vaqt safedahoi hujayraho va yak qismi aminokislota to haddi – gazi karbonat, ob va gayra tajziya meshavand. Mahsuloti tajziya va obi ziyodati az organizm ba vositai gurda, shush va pust barovarda meshavad.

Mubodilai karbogidradho. Karbogidradho baroi hujayrahoimagzi sar, mushakho manbai neru buda, to ba moddahoi odditarin – glyukoza tajziya shuda ba khun jabbida meshavand. Dar khun glyukoza doiman yak khel (0,10-0,12%) buda, onro hormoni gadudi zeri meda – insulin tanzim mekunad. Ba tufayli in hormon ziyodatii qand dar jigar va mushakho memonad. Digar hormoni gadudi zeri meda hangomi dar khun narasidani glyukoza boisi ba glyukoza tabdil yoftani glikogen shuda, baraks amal mekunand. Dar surati norasogii insulin odam ba bemorii vaznin giriftor meshavad, ki dar on miqdori glyukozai khun ziyod megardad. Yak qismi on muntazam ba vositai peshob berun meshavad. Az hamin sabab in bemoriro diabeti qand menomand.

To ba tavri suni hosil kardani insulin in bemori margovar bud. Holo ba bemoron muntazam hormoni insulin guzaronda, ba onho khurokhoero, ki karbogidrat nadorand, tavsiya medihand.

Mubodilai charbho. Charbho dar pardahoi mansubi boftai payvandi zakhira gashta, ba bejonshavi va osebi mekhanikii uzvho mone meshavad. Charbi zeri pust garmiro durust nameguzaronad va in boisi nigoh doshtani harorati doimii badan megardad.

Nisbat ba tajziyai 1g safeda yo karbogidrat hangomi tajziyai 1g charb 2 barobar ziyod neru sarf meshavad. Charbi khurok dar uzvhoi hozima to ba gliserin va kislota ravgan tajziya shuda, avval ba limfa va bad ba khun dokhil megardad. Bo khurok ham ravgani hayvonot va ham ravgani nabototro istemol kardan zarur ast.

Qismi ziyodi charb zakhira meshavad. Zakhirai charbho hangomi dar organizm narasidani gizo va sarfi neru istifoda meshavand. Tagyiryobii payvastagihoi uzvi dar organizm. Dar khurok narasidani baze payvastagihoi organiki az hisobi farovonii digar payvastagihoi uzvi barobar meshavad. In ravandho dar jigar bo tasiri fermenthoi makhsus meguzarand. Safedaho, charb ba karbogidratho, baze karbogidratho boshand, ba charb tabdil yofta metavonand. Mumkin ast charbho ba karbogidrat tabdil yoband.

Bo narasidani safedaho khurokro raf kardan mumkin nest, zero onho faqat az aminokislotaho ba vujud meoyand va aminokislotaho na az charb va na az karbogidratho hosil shuda metavonand. Narasidani safeda khususan baroi organizmi inkishofyobanda khatarnok ast.

Ba odamon ham khuroki az hayvonot va ham khuroki az nabotot giriftashuda zarur ast. Safedahoi tarkibi nabotot hama guna aminokislotahoi ba odam zarur va baroi hosil shudani safedahoi ba u khosro nadorand. Tarkibi aminokislotahoi mahsuloti az hayvonot giriftashuda – gusht, tukhm, shir boshad, ba talaboti organizm muvofiqat mekunand.

Savolho:

  1. Charo mubodilai moddaho meguyand?
  2. Safeda dar organizm kadom naqshro mebozad?
  3. Mubodilai safedaho chi tavr ba amal meoyad?
  4. Mubodilai karbogidrat chi khel ba amal meoyad?
  5. Doimiyati glyukozai khun chi khel tanzim karda meshavad?
  6. Charbho dar organizm kadom naqshro ijro mekunand?
  7. Charo ba odamon khuroki ham az hayvonot va ham az nabotot giriftashuda zarur ast?
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