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Mirzo Habibulloh (Qooni)

Adibi tavono Mirzo Habibulloh mutakhallis ba Qooni 20-umi oktyabri soli 1808 dar shahri SHeroz ba dunyo omadaast. Padari u Mirzo Muhammad Ali khud shoir buda, bo takhallusi Gulshan sher meguftaast. Gulshan aslan az Kirmonshohon buda, batar ba SHeroz meoyad. Dar ovoni maktabkhonii Kooni padarash az olam guzashtaast. Qooni badtar baroi tahsil ba Isfahon rafta, sipas bo shohzoda Mirzo SHujoussaltana – pisari Fathalishoh dusti paydo namuda, ba in vosita bo yorii moddii shohzoda baroi tahsil ba Mashhad meravad. Qooni khud meguyad, ki dar Mashhad zindagiash nisbatan khushholona budaast. CHunonchi, «… bakhtam qavi, kisaam farbeh, khostaam ziyod», – ba yod meorad shoir.

In yorii moddi imkon medihad, ki Qooni ba omuzishi ilmho boz ham jidditar mashgul shavad. In ast, ki Qooni ba omuzishi ilmhoi gunogun khele jiddi mashgul shuda sarfu nahv, mantiq, bade, maoni, bayon, handasa, hisob, nujum, kalom, fiqh va gayraro hamajoniba meomuzad. U az ilmi musiqi niz komilan bokhabar budaast. Az rui shahodati sarchashmaho va baze ishorahoi tarjumaiholii khudi Qooni, u dar sinni 16-17 solagi ba jami aruzro az khud mekunad. Sarchashmaho ba zabondonii Qooni niz ishora namuda takid kardaand, ki shoir zabonhoi arabi va turkiro khele khub medonistaast. U dar hamin poya zabonhoi fransavi va anglisiro niz omukhta budaast. Hatto Qooni ba pisari 7-solai khud Somoni zaboni fransaviro to ba hadde bo tamomi nozukihoyash omuzondaast, ki Somoni dar on sinnu sol ba zaboni mazkur ozodona suhbat menamudaast.

SHerguii shoir khele barvaqt ogoz gardida, u dar ibtido bo takhallusi «Habib» ejod mekardaast.

Badtar shoir ba khidmati Hasanali Mirzo, ki hokimi Mashhad bud, dokhil shuda, se sol khidmat mekunad. Farzandi Hasanali Mirzo Uktoi Qoon nom dosht va shoir takhallusi khudro az Habib ba Qooni ivaz menamoyad. Badtar shohzodaro hokimi Kirmonu YAzd tain mekunand va Qooni niz ba in makon meoyad.

Qooni pas az on ki bo Fathalishoh shinos meshavad, muddate khidmati uro ikhtiyor menamoyad, Fathalishoh ba shoir unvoni ejodii mujtihidushshuaro doda, ba u tavajuhi beshtar zohir menamoyad.

Soli 1835 dar Tehron Muhammadshoh ba takht menishinad. Qooni khudi hamon sol ba Tehron omada, ba khidmati u dokhil meshavad. Muhammadshoh ba u laqabi «Hasson-ul-ajam»-ro medihad, ki bahri sazovor gardidan ba in unvon sadri azam Hoj Mirzo Oqosi musoidat namudaast:

Hudovando, shunidam mar maro Hasson laqab dodi, Bale, Hasson buvad har k-u, tu bigzini zi ehsonash. Kadomin fakhr az in bartar, ki guyad osafe chun tu, Muhammadshah Muhammad hastu Qoonist Hassonash.

Qooni du dafa khonador shuda boshad ham, dar zindagii oilavi bakhtash omad nakard. Pas az ranju azobhoi khele tuloni, ki ham az har du hamsarash va ham az kheshovandoni onho dida bud, vay sakht bemor meshavad.

Mirzo Habibullohi Qooni seyumi mayi soli 1854 vafot kardaast. Oid ba sanai vafoti in adibi khushzavq shoire chunin moddai tarikh guftaast:

Tarikhashro yake burun omadu guft: Sad hayf, ki raft az miyon Qooni.

Qooni serfarzand buda, yake az pisaroni shoir Muhammad Hasan adibi khele ranginkhayol budaast.

Muhammad Hasan az ovoni khurdsoli ba shergui mashgul shuda, bo takhallusi Somoni ejod mekardaast.

Merosi adabii Qooni.

Qooni ba shergui dar ovoni 11-12- solagi shuru namuda, az khud osori adabii boe boqi guzoshtaast. Merosi adabii mahfuzmondai Qooniro besh az sad hazor bayt donistaand. On osor asosan az qasida, gazal, qitaotu ruboiyot iborat meboshad. Daqiqan tarkibi devoni Qooni chunin ast: qasida 330-to, gazal 78-to, ruboi 29-to, musammat 6-to, tarkibband 13-to, tarjeband 1-to, qita 155-to, masnavi-2to;

Hunari Qooni Dar qasidasaroi.

Sababi ba qasida beshtar ru ovardani shoir on ast, ki shohoni qojori adabiyotro asosan dar darbor mutamarkaz namuda budaand. Az in ru, shoir ba maqsadi behbudi ruzgori khesh asosan ba ejodi qasida kamar bastaast. Hukumati qojori usuli kishvardori va munosibat ba adabiyotu adibonro misli Gaznaviyoni davrai avval ba roh monda bud. Az in jost, ki Qooni dar qasida ba Unsuri, dar tarjeband ba Farrukhi va dar musammat ba Manuchehri payravi namudaast.

Qooni asosan qasidahoi madhi surudaast. U dar tagazzuli yak qasidai madhii khud ba mahbuba az omadani fasli bahor, az ehyoi tabiat va zeboihoi on, nakhati gulu lola, vazidani nasimi guvoro, atrogin gardidani havo va rezishi boroni nayson va gayra khabar medihad.

CHunonchi:

Ay turki man, ay bahori jonafzo,

Burqa bikash az rukhi bihishtoso.

K-az bogi bihisht navbahor inak

Hamvor furu chamid zi dunyo.

Idi ajami ba farri Farvardin,

Dar sabza girift sohati gabro.

Bast abri safed killa bar gardun,

Zad lolai surkh khayma bar sahro.

Domoni chaman az on pur az lulu,

Somoni zamin az in pur az debo.

Andar daman az shaqiqu ozargon

V-andar chaman az bunafshavu mino.

Ovarda burun bahori lubatgar,

Az parda hazor lubati zebo.

Navshodu hisor gasht, pindori,

Bog az gulu sarvu sunbuli buyo.

Har subh orad sabo ba pinhoni,

Bas nagz suvar zi har karon paydo.

Bozori Hutan shudast, pindori,

Dashtu daman az shavohidi rano.

va gayra.

Tagazzuli mazkur, albatta, komilan ba tagazzuloti Farrukhi narasida boshad ham, dar tasviri juziyoti fasli bahor khele hunarmandona meboshad. Hususan, dar mazmunsozi tabi baland doshtani shoir his shavad ham, dar kor giriftan az unsurhoi shakli: vazn, qofiya, radif, matlasozi va gayra chandon hunarmandona nest. Aloqamandona ba tasviri bahor, mavzuhoi digari qasidahoi Qooni vasfi mayu bodagusori, musiqivu surud, tavajjuh ba mahbuba va umuman shodivu nishot yake az mavzuhoi markazii qasidahoi u va khususan tagazzuloti Qooni ast. Hatto tagazzuli yak qasidai shoir, ki ba vasfi bahor va juziyoti on bakhshida shudaast, 38 baytro dar bar megirad.

Dar qasidahoi Qooni mavzuhoi shikoyativu etirozi, tanqidu hajvi misli shikva az noadolatihoi ruzgor, badkorii hasudon, badguihoi hannotonu notavonbinon, tanqidi muftkhuronu ayyoshon, hokimonu sohibmansabon, amaldoron, hamkasboni hasadkhur, qaltabonhovu avomfirebon va gayra khele khub mushohida meshavad.

Qasidahoi Qooni, gunogunmavzu buda, dar onho pandu andarz, sitoishi shakhsiyathoi diniyu mazhabi, vasfi insoni komil, tasviri shahrhovu qasrho, targibi adlu odili va adolatkhohi, tanqidi riyokoronu mutaassibon, manzaranigorivu khushguzaronii umr va gayra ba nazar merasad. Masalan, baze qasidahoyash arzishi tarikhi dorand, ki dar onho hodisavu voqeahoi tarikhi, shakhsiyathoi siyosi va faoliyati onho, lashkarkashiho, fathu galabaho, kishvarkushoiho va gayra bayon shudaand. YAke az hamin guna qasidahoi shoir 268 baytro dar bar girifta, kalontarin qasida dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik ba shumor meravad. YO khud qasidai «Dar manqabti Ali», ki az 337 bayt iborat ast, az qasidai qablan zikrshuda hajman kalon buda, dostonro ba yod meorad.

U dar payravii Farrukhi qasidae dorad, ki dar on voqeai fathi Guriyonu Hirot ba tasvir girifta shudaast. Qasidai Farrukhi «Fathi Sumanot» nom doshta, kornomai Mahmudi Gaznaviro dar bar megirad, ki dar on qissahoi shohoni guzashtaro afsona mehisobad:

Fasona gashtu kuhan shud hadisi Iskandar,

Sukhan nav or, ki navro halovatest digar.

Qooni meguyad:

Sukhan gazofa chi roni zi khusravoni kuhan,

YAke zi shavkati shohi jahon saroy sukhan.

SHoir galaba dar qalai Guriyonu Hirotro ba tasvir girifta, kornomai shohro ba zafaru piruzi hangomi kishvarkushoiho ba qalam dodaast:

Ba soli panjohu and az pasi hazoru duvist,

CHu kard ohui khovar ba burji sher vatan.

Ba azmi cholishi afgonkhudo zi

Ray ba Hirot Sipah kashidu barangekht azmro tavsan.

In jo niz haybati lashkari shohi va vasoiti jangii u sitoish karda shudaast:

Hazor bukhtii sarmastu har kadom ba shakl,

CHu zavraqe, ki az u chor langar ast ovan.

Hazor arrodai gardanda tupi qalakushoi,

CHunon ki bar kitfi bod sadde az ohan.

SHoir lahzahoi piruzii lashkari shoh va maglubiyati hirotiyonro chunin mavridi arzyobi qaror medihad:

YAke anishai makkorpesha burd khabar,

Ba marzboni Hari, k-ay hamesha yori mehan:

SHah az Ray omadu bigirift Guriyonu parer,

Ba shoda omadu dar joda joy dosht paran.

SHoir omodagii hirotiyonro ba muqobili in hujum chunin bayon kardaast:

Ham az miyona guzin kard shash hazor daler,

Hujabrzahravu pulodpushu togojan.

Ba hamin tariq, dar bobi chi tavr tavvasuti saforati Angliya yori rasonidan baroi peshgirii minbadai pahnshavii jangi mazkur va anjomi in kishvarkushoi shoir chunin mefarmoyad:

SHunidaam, ki safire zi angliskhudoy,

Du sol raft, ki suyi Ray omad az Landan.

Payom deh, ki malik gar girift mulki Hari,

Inoni rakhsh nagirad magar ba mulki Dakan,

Na Qandahor bimonad ba joy, na Kobul

Na Bomiyon, na Lahovur, na Gazna, na Parvan.

Az in muhokimaroniho barmeoyad, ki qasoidi Qooni arzishi bisyor qavii tarikhi niz dorand. Honanda az onho bisyor lahzahoi hassosi hayoti madumi kishvar va umuman SHarqro meomuzad, az khud menamoyad.

Ba hamin tariq, Qooni dar shaklhoi digari sheri: tarjeot, ruboi, gazal, musammat va gayra niz panjai qavi doshtaast. Vale mahz dar qasida va makhsusan, qasoidi madhi Qooni shuhrati olamgir dorad. Qasoidi u madhi boshad ham, arzishi voloi tarikhiro dorost.

Mavzu va mazmuni asari nasrii Qooni – «Pareshon».

Qooni na tanho dar navhoi gunoguni adabii manzum: qasida, tarkibbandu tarjeband, musammatot, gazal, ruboi, qitaot va gayra, balki u dar nasr niz tabi favqulodda baland doshtaast. Agar u dar navhoi adabii manzum: dar qasida ba Anvari va Hoqoni, Unsuri, Farrukhi; dar musammat ba Manuchehri; dar qita beshtar ba Anvari va Sadi; dar ruboi va tarjeot ba Farrukhi dunbolravi karda boshad, dar nasr mahz ba Sadi payravi namudaast. In ast, ki Qooni dar zeri tamiri «Guliston»-i Sadi asari nasrii khud – «Pareshon»-ro talif menamoyad. Guzashta az in asar Qooni nomaho va zindaginomai khudro niz ba nasr talif namudaast.

«Pareshon»-ro Qooni dar ovoni 29-solagii khesh, soli 1836 talif namudaast. Dar asar zimni fasli «Sababi talifi kitob…» az Muhammadshohi hokim (solhoi saltanatash 1834-1848) yod karda meshavad, ki shoyad kitob bo khohishi u talif shuda boshad. Qooni sababi «Pareshon» nom nihodani asari khudro dar vazi noguvoru nooromi ahvoli shakhsii khesh medonad: «jiddu hazle chand dar ham rekhtam va barkhe nazmu nasr bo ham omekhtam va on jamro ba munosibati holi khud «Pareshon» nom nihodam».

Sokhtori asar chunin nast: Muqaddima, fasli «Sababi talifi kitob», qismati asosi va khotima. Qismati asosii asar doroi 123 hikoyat buda, ba masalahoi gunoguni akhloqi, tarbiyavi, ijtimoi, siyosi, insondustivu nakukori, sakhovatmandiyu balandhimmati, sabru tahammul, dustivu rafoqat va gayra bakhshida shudaast. Az sababi on ki «Pareshon» zeri tasiri «Guliston»-i SHaykh Sadii SHerozi rui kor omadaast, dar on tarbiyai inson va adolatu adolatkhohi az masalahoi markazi va asositarin hisob meshavand.

Usuli ofarinishi hikoyat dar «Pareshon»-i Qooni misli «Guliston»- i Sadi meboshad. YAne har yak hikoyat bo porchahoi sheri, beshtar bo qitaot zeb doda meshavad. Vazifai porahoi sheri, ki goliban dar intihoi hikoyat ovarda meshavand, taqviyatu purrasozii manii hikoyot, muassirivu jozibanokii on meboshad. Har on maniyu maqsade, ki dar hikoya darj gardidaast, tavvasuti porahoi sheri asosnok karda meshavand, ki digar khonanda komilan az mutoliai on qanoatmandi hosil menamoyad va chunu charo namekunad. Baroi misol ba hikoyate az kitobi «Pareshon»-i Qooni murojiat mekunem:

Podshohe az sohibdile suol kard, ki az podshohon chi monad?

-Guft:

YAk chiz, valekin ba du sifat.

Pursid, ki on kadom ast?

Guft:-Nom, ki chun adlu ehson kunand, ba neki va illo ba zishti.

Hazor sol, ki Zahhok podshohi kard,

Az u namond ba juz nomi zisht dar olam.

Agarchi davlati Kisro base namond, vale,

Ba adlu dod shudash nom dar zamona alam.

Qooni adlu zulmro bo obrazhoi shohoni tarikhi Anushervon, Hotam, Hajjoj ibni YUsuf va gayra ba tavri muqoisa zikr namuda, afzaliyati adlro bar zulm, bartarii odilro az zolim nishon medihad. Hikoyati mazkuri Qooni bo andake ikhtisor doir ba in mavzu khele jolib ast:

Podshohe kisai tama dukhta va anboni hirs az shahvati zolimon andukhta, bad- in sabab jonibi mazlumon nagirifti va nasihati nosehon napazirufti…

Hadyai zolim ar sitonad shoh,

Donishu chashmu gush khira shavad.

Dodi mazlumro bigir az u,

Subhi umrash chu shomi tira shavad.

Az in lahzahoi hikoyati mazkur malum meshavad, ki poyai zulm dar hama davru zamon va dar hama guna holat bebaqoyu noustuvor budaast. Baraks, bunyodi adl va arzishi adolat va naqshi odil dar hama guna jomea va dar hama guna davru zamon ustuvoru pobarjo, bobaqovu poydor ast.

Azbaski «Pareshon» asari akhloqi-tarbiyavist, pas sitoishi khislathoi hamida: insondusti, khalqparvari, vatankhohi, neki va nekukori, sakhovatmandi, olihimati, adolatparvari, ilmdusti, khoksori, furutani, khayrkhohi, nekandeshi, purtamkini, tahammulkori, durandeshi, pursabri va gayra dar on bo tamomi juziyot ba tasvir girifta shudaast.

Hislathoi razila az qabili: badi, badandeshi, kibr, gurur, zolimi, khudkhohi, mardumozori, goratgari, qatlu kushtor, sabukfikri, kutohnazari, dunhimati, takabbur, ribokhori, rishvasitoni, avomfirebi, qaltaboni, dayusi, nokasi, bodakhori, mayparasti, muftkhuri va gayra dar in asar khele ba tavri jiddi mahkum karda meshavand. Masalan, dar in hikoyat, ki mastiyu bodaparasti hamchun unsuri durkunandai inson az aql va az haddi odami ba tasvir girifta meshavad, khele muhokimaronii jolib ba nazar merasad. Honanda mavqei adibro ba tezi his karda metavonad. In hikoyat «Bodapaymoi tavbakor» nom doshta, baso hazlomezu hajvi ba nazar merasad. Dar in hikoyat simoi nokhushi badmaste tasvir shudaast, ki bodai dusola obruvu etibori sisolaashro barham zadaast va dar okhir uro ba marg rasonidaast.

Dar asar, albatta, tasiri din va tasavvuf khub his karda meshavad. Dinu tasavvuf hamchun du omili markaziyu bezarari tarbiyavi- akhloqii inson qalamdod megardad. Boyad guft, ki «Guliston»-i Sadi ba tarikhi adabiyot hamchun yak kashfiyoti nodiri adabi vorid shudaast. Az in ru, «Guliston» ba adabiyoti davr va minbada tasiri farovon guzoshta, «Nigoriston», «Horiston», «Bahoriston», «Pareshon» barin asarho bevosita dar payravii «Guliston» talif shudaand. YAke az chunin asarho, chunon ki qablan niz ishora namudem, «Pareshon»-i Qoonist, ki okhirin javobiya ba asari Sadist. In asar ham dar shakl (sokhtoru tarkib) va ham dar mazmunu muhtavo ba «Guliston» monand ast, vale dar arzishi adabi- estetiki, tasirnokii mazmunu mohiyat, hunari ejodu sanati bayon, jozibiyati sukhanu mahbubiyati ifoda, bahrabardori az mutoliai on ba asari Sadi barobar shuda nametavonad. Sadi yagona adibest, ki dar nazmu nasri adabi – badei maqomu martabai yakkhela dorad. yane u on mavqee, ki dar sher dorad, aynan hamon poyaro dar nasr niz sohib ast.

Qooni niz shoiri tavono va navisandai zabardast meboshad. Agar maqomi Qooni va hunari in shoir dar nazmu sher va sanati ejodii u dar nasr bo ejodiyoti Sadii SHerozi muqoisa karda shavad, hej goh Qooni hamradifi Sadi shuda nametavonad. Hol on ki to zamoni Qooni nazmu nasri fors-tojik marohili komili kamolot paymuda, tajribai farovoni ejodi mavjud budaast. Albatta, on ashorero, ki Qooni az Mavlavi zikr kardaast, dar nazar doshta nameshavad. Az hama muhim on ast, ki «Guliston» az muqaddima, 8 bobu khotima iborat ast, vale in nizom dar «Pareshon» nest va shoyad unvoni asar ba muhtavoi on (dar nisbati «Guliston») niz ishorae boshad.

Sokhtori hikoyaho niz dar in du asar yakson nest. Hikoyahoi Sadi khele kutoh, purmazmun, sertasirtar va az nigohi hunar ham baso hunarmandonavu joliband.

In tarzi ofarinish dar asari Qooni nisbatan zaif va az nigohi hunar susttar ast. U beshtar hikoyathoro tuloni bayon namuda, hadafro kashol medihad.

Dar asari Sadi sanati dustdoshtai u dar bayonash nasri musajja ast, ki az saj khele khub kor megirad. In holat dar asari Qooni kame kostaast. Sajro Qooni khele ziyod ba kor mebarad, vale tulonivu masnu. Honandaro khasta mekunad, zero darki mano kame dushvor megardad. Sadi dar hikoyai ishqie menavisad:

-Porsoero didam ba muhabbati shakhse giriftor, na toqatu sabr va na yoroi guftor»…

Korgiri az saj dar «Pareshon» chunin surat giriftaast:

«Dar fasli zimiston, ki havo burdi bard» pushidan girift va chashmai chashmi sahob jushidan, nafas dar halq tang shud va mardumi chashm dar chashmi mardum sang».

Bo vujudi in hama, Qooni dar tarikhi adabiyot bo talifi in asar sunnati adabiro ehyo kard va chun okhirin javobiyagu ba «Guliston» mashhur shud. Besh az in, Qooni bo ejodi in asari khud ba nasri realisti va rushdi adabiyoti maorifparvari taqviyati makhsus bakhshid.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Oid ba ovoni javonii Qooni chi medoned?
  2. Qooni ba juz zaboni modari boz kadom zabonhoi SHarqu Garbro medonist?
  3. Qooni bo kadom shohoni qojori irtiboti nazdik dosht?
  4. Poyoni umri shoir chi guna sipari shudaast?
  5. Oid ba merosi adabii Qooni malumot dihed.
  6. Sahmi Qooni dar qasidasaroi chi guna ast?
  7. U dar qasoidi madhi beshtar ba kiho payravi kardaast?
  8. Sahmi Qooni dar tahavvuli nasri adabi chi guna ast?
  9. Oid ba umumiyat va tafovuti «Guliston» va «Pareshon» naql kuned.
  10. Simoi mayparaston dar hikoyoti «Pareshon» chi guna ast?

 

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